Otolaryngology (ENT) Conditions we Treat
Ear, nose, throat, head and neck problems are a common occurrence in children of all ages. Our highly-skilled and experienced surgeons not only treat the typical or recurring pediatric otolaryngology problems, they also evaluate and treat facial trauma, provide assistance in overcoming the numerous otolaryngologic manifestations of cystic fibrosis, evaluate and treat head and neck tumors and evaluate and treat complex airway problems.
The airway of the respiratory tract are the tubes that allow the passage of air from your mouth and nose to pass to the lungs with breathing.
Ankyloglossia is called tongue-tie because it limits the use of the tongue. It may lead to problems with speech or eating.
Aphthous (from the Greek word meaning ulcer) stomatitis is a common illness that causes small painful ulcers in the mouth, hard palate, inner cheek, lips or tongue.
Auditory neuropathy is a hearing disorder in which sound enters the inner ear normally but the transmission of signals from the inner ear to the brain is impaired.
Benign and malignant head and neck tumors
Head and neck growths, tumors or masses in children are usually non-cancerous, but can spread to other parts of the body.
Branchial Cleft Remnant
Branchial cleft remnants are visible birth defects that can occur on the neck. They appear in the form of sinuses or cysts and are problems with the connective tissue that form the structure of the neck.
Please see Airway Obstruction for further information.
Cerumen impaction is a condition in which ear wax within the ear canal becomes impacted.
When a baby is born with a large mass or tumor on his or her neck, this is known as a cervical teratoma. These are often benign, or non-cancerous, but they can cause other complications. If they occur in adults, they are often cancerous.
Choanal atresia occurs when a newborn’s nasal passage is blocked at the junction between the back of the nose and the throat.
If an unusual growth of skin is present in the middle ear, right behind the eardrum, this is often known as a cholesteatoma.
Chondrosarcoma is a form of cancer that can develop in the bones and soft tissues of the body, usually in people over 20 years of age. Mostly they begin in the cells in the joints that produce cartilage.
Cleft Lip and/or Palate
A cleft lip and/or palate is characterized by the presence of a gap (split) in the lip and/or palate seen at birth when the tissues of the lip and/or palate don't come together at all, or come together only part of the way.
Complete Tracheal Rings
The trachea is the windpipe, and trachea rings are rings of cartilage that enhance the structure of the trachea and prevent it from collapsing. Normally, tracheal rings are C-shaped. But complete tracheal rings have an O-shape that can lead to complications.
Congenital Anomalies of the Esophagus and Trachea
Congenital anomalies of the esophagus and trachea are problems with either the esophagus or the trachea (the windpipe) that are present at birth. There are several different kinds that vary in nature and severity.
Congenital Disorders of the Ear
Any problem with the development of ear that occurs while the fetus is still in the uterus is known as a congenital disorder of the ear.
Congenital High Airway Obstruction Syndrome
If a fetus’s upper airway becomes blocked during intrauterine development, the problem is called congenital high airway obstruction syndrome, or CHAOS.
Congenital Neck Masses
Any swollen area of lump (cyst) located on the neck can be classified as a congenital neck mass. They can be large and physically disturbing, or barely noticeable to the naked eye.
Craniofacial is a broad medical term that describes abnormalities of the bones of the skull and face.
The nostrils and two nasal passages within the nose are separated by a thin wall called the nasal septum. When this septum is out of place, it can make one nasal passage smaller and cause nasal congestion with difficulty breathing. This is known as deviated septum.
An ear infection is an inflammation of the middle ear (the air-filled space behind the eardrum that contains the little bones that transmit the sound vibrations from the eardrum).
The epiglottis is a small flap of tissue that covers the windpipe and directs food to the esophagus. When the epiglottis swells and prevents air from flowing into the lungs, this is known as epiglottitis. It can be life threatening.
Hearing Loss and Impairment
Any condition that reduces a child’s ability to hear sounds with their ears is known as hearing loss or hearing impairment.
Herpangina is a painful, contagious viral infection commonly occurring in children 3-10 years of age during the summer and fall months, which presents with blisters or ulcers on the roof of the mouth or back of the throat.
When the body develops normally, the larynx (voice box) sits above the trachea (windpipe), right next to the esophagus. If a laryngeal cleft is present, there’s a gap between the larynx and esophagus that can allow food or liquids to enter the trachea.
Laryngeal papilloma is a disease that leads to wart-like growths on the larynx, or voice box. These are non-cancerous, but they can grow quickly and tend to recur even after being removed.
The larynx, or voice box, ordinarily sits above the trachea, which is the windpipe that leads to the lungs. When the tissue of the larynx is soft and covers the opening of the trachea, this is known as laryngomalacia.
The mastoid is the portion of the bony skull that is located behind the ear. The mastoid bone is quite porous and can be prone to infection. When an infection spreads to the mastoid bone it is call mastoiditis.
Nasal obstruction or congestion simply refers to the inability to breathe properly through the nose. It’s a broad term that can refer to everything from the typical stuffy nose that accompanies a cold or flu, to a structure problem that obstruct the nose, such as a deviated septum.
Lymph nodes are a vital part of the body when it comes to fighting off infections. Many lymph nodes are present in the neck. When these neck lymph nodes become swollen, this might be due to neck lymphadenopathy.
Noise-Induced Hearing Loss
Noise-induced hearing loss is a type of hearing impairment that is caused by exposure to loud noise. In some cases, a single loud noise exposure can cause noise-induced hearing loss. In other instances, prolonged or multiple exposures to less loud noise can result in noise-induced hearing loss.
Nosebleeds (epistaxis) are a common problem in children (frequently between the ages of 2-10 years; rare in infants) and while causing parental anxiety are usually not serious. If a child has recurrent nosebleeds or they are difficult to stop, he/she should be examined/investigated by a pediatric ENT physician. Nosebleeds can occur for a variety of reasons and range in severity.
Orbital cellulitis is a major infection of the soft tissues behind the eye which may involve the cheeks, eyebrows, eyelids and muscles.
When the space behind the eardrum or middle ear (where the tiny bones pick up the vibrations of speech and relay them onto the inner ear for transmission to the brain for interpretation), gets infected, it’s known as otitis media.
Otosclerosis is a disease that causes these bones to fuse together in a hardened mass that hampers good hearing.
Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis
Pharyngitis and tonsillitis are infections of the throat region. In general, pharyngitis refers to an infection of the throat, whereas tonsillitis refers to an infection specifically of the tonsils. If both the throat and the tonsils are infected, it is called pharyngotonsillitis.
A preauricular pit is a small hole and tract/cyst under the skin of the face just in front of the ear.
Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia
Cilia are hair-like structures in the airways that work together to keep the airways clean of dust, debris and foreign contaminants. In primary ciliary dyskinesia, the cilia are irregularly shaped and don’t function properly, which can lead to a number of complications.
Pyriform Aperture Stenosis
Pyriform aperture stenosis is a birth defect that affects the face and nose. The common presentation is a narrow nasal opening due to the upper jaw bone being larger than normal.
Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis
Please see Laryngeal Papilloma for further information.
The larynx is another term for the voice box in the throat. The saccule is a portion of the larynx that produces mucus to lubricate it. When cysts form in the saccule, they are known as saccular cysts.
Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Sensorineural hearing loss is one of many types of hearing loss. It occurs due to damage to the inner ear (cochlea), or the nerves that connect the inner ear to the brain.
Sinus disease refers to any number of medical conditions that impact the sinuses. The sinuses are cavities in the skull that usually trap germs and prevent them from infecting the body.
Sinuses are air-filled cavities. There are four located in the skull; behind the cheeks of the face (maxillary; present at birth), around the bridge of the nose (ethmoid; present at birth), forehead (frontal; develops around 7 years of age), and deep in the face behind the nose (sphenoid; develops during adolescence). When these cavities become infected, the condition is known as sinusitis.
Sternocleidomastoid Tumor of Infancy
The sternocleidomastoid is a neck muscle which joins the base of the skull to the collar bone. A sternocleidomastoid tumor of infancy is a rare, benign neck mass/lump that appears around the second and eighth week after birth, more often in boys, and often causing the baby’s head to be tilted to one side and be rotated to the other.
Strep throat is a bacterial infection that primarily affects the neck and throat. It’s common among children and is contagious.
Subglottic cysts are growths that occur in the subglottis, which is the lower part of the larynx (voice box). They cause airway obstruction and other complications.
Hemangiomas are an abnormal growth formed of a cluster of small blood vessels, such as capillaries.
The subglottis is the lower portion of the larynx (voice box), below the vocal cords. When the airway narrows at this point, this is known as subglottic stenosis.
When a person’s hearing becomes reduced by 30 decibels or more over the course of 72 hours or less, the condition is known as sudden deafness.
Swimmer’s ear gets its name from the infection that can occur due to water that remains in the ear after swimming. But it can also occur by damaging the lining of the ear canal with cotton swabs, fingers or other objects. The infection can cause a number of concerning symptoms.
Temporomandibular Joint Disorders
The temporomandibular joint is the area where the lower jaw connects to the base of the skull. It’s surrounded by muscles and ligaments all of which have to work well together. Any condition that impacts any part of the system can cause a problem with the temporomandibular joint.
Thyroglossal Duct Cyst
A thyroglossal duct cyst is a mass that forms in the neck, most often in children. It’s formed from leftover tissues that remain in the body after the thyroid gland forms in the fetus.
Tonsillitis is an infection of the tonsils, which are a pair of oval-shaped pads that rest at the back of the throat.
The trachea is another name for the windpipe that delivers air to and from the lungs. When the trachea becomes narrow and negatively impacts breathing, this is known as tracheal stenosis.
The trachea (windpipe) to the lungs and the esophagus to the stomach are tubes that are normally close to one another but not connected. When tracheoesophageal fistula is present, the two tubes are connected in one or more places, and openings between them can cause problems.
When the walls of the trachea (windpipe) are weak or floppy, the result is tracheomalacia. This causes the windpipe to actually collapse as the person is breathing and make it difficult to draw a breath.
Vallecular cysts are pockets of infection that develop at the base of the tongue. They are often present at birth but tend to grow worse over time.
A vascular malformation is an abnormality where clusters of blood vessels develop during fetal development.
VATER syndrome refers to several birth defects that frequently occur in conjunction with one another. The letters stand for vertebrae, anus, trachea, esophagus and renal.
The roof of the mouth, side walls of the throat and back wall of the throat together make up a bodily structure known as the velopharyngeal valve that is important for speech. When something goes wrong with this part of the body, it is known as velopharyngeal dysfunction.
Vocal Cord Cysts
Vocal cord cysts are masses of tissue surrounded by a membrane, or sac. They typically occur in the vocal cord due to injury from overuse and can cause problems with speaking.
Vocal Cord Nodules
Vocal cord nodules are calluses of the vocal cords. They typically occur from overuse or misuse of the voice. They can cause problems with voice quality.
Vocal Cord Paralysis
The vocal cords not only produce sound, they also keep the windpipe free of food and liquid. When the vocal cords stop moving due to problems with nerve impulses, it causes problems with all these vocal cord functions and is known as vocal cord paralysis.
Vocal Cord Polyps
Vocal cord polyps are lesions that affect the vocal cords. They typically occur in the vocal cord due to injury from overuse and can cause problems with speaking.
Voice disorders are a broad category of medical conditions congenital and acquired; acute or chronic that affect the loudness, pitch, quality or resonance of a child's voice.