Pediatric Blood & Bone Marrow Conditions We Treat

The Helen & Jacob Shaham Cancer and Blood Disorders Institute at Nicklaus Children's Hospital provides state-of-the-art medical and surgical care to more pediatric cancer patients than any other facility in South Florida.

We are recognized for a multidisciplinary, holistic approach to care that places the child and family at the center of a highly coordinated network of specialists who work together to anticipate and meet the needs of the child and family throughout their treatment and follow-up care. When children enter the Institute, they benefit from knowing that an entire team of pediatric specialists is putting their needs and the needs of their family first.

We have a comprehensive array of sub-specialists, programs and clinics covering the following conditions:


An Adamantinoma is a rare slow growing type of cancerous bone tumor that occurs most often in boys and young men, most frequently found in the shin bone, and jaw bone.


Carcinoma refers to a form of cancer that develops in the body’s epithelial tissue, if the cancer first forms in the glands that line your organs, this is known as adenocarcinoma.

Alpha Thalassemia

Alpha thalassemia is an abnormality in the production of alpha chains which causes the red cells to more easily breakdown.

Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma

ASPS is a very rare cancer that grows slowly from the connective tissue that usually occurs in children and young adults.


Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues.

Aneurysmal Bone Cyst

When a blood-filled growth occurs in the bones of the arms, legs, skull, trunk or spine, then it might be an aneurysmal bone cyst.

Aneurysmal Bone Cyst

An aneurysmal bone cyst is a benign (non-cancerous) lesion that develops within the bone, fills with blood and can grow aggressively.


An angiofibroma is a rare benign tumor that occurs most frequently in young boys/adolescents, and grows in the nasal cavity.

Angiomatoid Fibrous Histiocytoma

An angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma is a form of soft tissue tumor that typically affects the legs, feet, hands or arms.


An angiomyolipoma is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor that forms in one of the kidneys.

Aplastic Anemia (AA)

When the bone marrow doesn’t produce enough blood cells, this condition is known as aplastic anemia.


An Astrocytoma is a form of brain tumor that develops in the cells that form the supportive tissue of the brain.

Benign and malignant head and neck tumors

Head and neck growths, tumors or masses in children are usually non-cancerous, but can spread to other parts of the body.

Beta Thalassemia

Beta thalassemia impacts two different types of genes. When these genes are damaged or missing, it can cause beta thalassemia.

Bone Tumors and Cysts

Bone tumors and cysts are abnormal growths that can occur in the bones.

Carcinoid Tumor

Carcinoid tumors are a type of neuroendocrine tumor.


Cancers can be classified based on the type of tissue in which they start growing. In the case of carcinomas, they develop in epithelial tissue, which makes up the inner lining of most organs in the body, as well as the skin.

Cardiac Tumor

If an abnormal tissue grows in the heart it is known as a primary cardiac tumor.


Chondroblastoma is a rare type of cartilage-producing benign tumor in children that often occurs in the ends of the long bones of the arms and legs.


A tumor that forms on or in the bones might be an chondroma.

Chondromyxoid Fibroma

Chondromyxoid fibroma is a benign tumor, which means it doesn’t lead to cancer. The tumor is made from cartilage and occurs near the ends of bones.


Chondrosarcoma is a form of cancer that can develop in the bones and soft tissues of the body, usually in people over 20 years of age. Mostly they begin in the cells in the joints that produce cartilage.

Chronic Granulomatous Disease

CGD is the disorder that develops when phagocytes (one of the body's blood cells) doen't function properly.

Clear Cell Sarcoma

Clear cell sarcoma is a form of cancer that develops in the soft tissues of the body.

Congenital Anemia

Congenital anemia, including Fanconi anemia, is a group of inherited diseases that affect the bone marrow, decreasing production of all types of blood cells.

Desmoid Fibromatosis

Desmoid fibromatosis is a condition that causes tumors known as desmoid tumors to grow in the connective tissue of the body, often in the legs, arms or abdomen.

Desmoid Tumor

A desmoid tumor is an ucommon tumor that frequently arises in muscles, it can also come from tissues, tendons, and ligaments.

Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor

Desmoplastic small round cell tumors are a rare form of sarcoma, a type of cancer, that frequently impacts the abdomen or the pelvic area.

Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid cancer is cancer that impacts the thyroid gland, a butterfly-shaped gland located in the neck. The most common types of thyroid cancers are known as differentiated thyroid cancers.


Dysgerminomas are tumors that develop in the germ cells of the ovaries.

Dyskeratosis congenita

Dyskeratosis congenita is a rare form of bone marrow failure, with associated skin/nail abnormalities, and thickened white patches in the mouth.


Enchondromas are usually non-cancerous cartilage tumors that are found in the marrow of a bone.

Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma

Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare vascular tumor of young adults that starts in the cells lining the blood vessels of soft-tissue, bone and body organs- commonly the liver, lungs and bone.

Epithelioid Sarcoma

Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare form of cancer that most commonly affects the arms and hands but can also be found in the legs, feet or main part of the body.

Ewing sarcoma

Ewing sarcoma is a rare type of cancer that usually develops in the bones or soft tissue around the bones (cartilage/nerves) of children 10-20 years of age.

Fanconi Anemia

Fanconi anemia is a rare inherited disorder that involves a wide spectrum of abnormalities involving bone, ears, kidneys, other physical abnormalities. Some of the patients may develop bone marrow failure or leukemia.

Fibromyxoid Sarcoma

Fibromyxoid sarcoma is a rare form of cancer that most commonly affects the arms, hands, legs, feet or trunk.


Fibrosarcoma is a rare form of soft tissue cancer that occurs in infants and children 10-15 years of age, that starts in the fibrous tissue of the body but most commonly in the tendons at the ends of the limbs.


A ganglioneuroma is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor that typically develops in the autonomic nerve cells found throughout the body.

Germ Cell Tumor

The germ cells are the cells in the body that ultimately help women form eggs and men form sperm. When a tumor develops from these cells, it’s known as a germ cell tumor.

Germinoma of the Central Nervous system

A germinoma is a rare form of cancer that is most often found in the brain of children between the ages of 10 and 19 years.

Giant Cell Tumor

A giant cell tumor is a non-cancerous tumor that grows at the ends of the body’s long bones.

Glioblastoma Multiforme

Glioblastoma multiforme are high-grade 1V, aggressively growing, cancerous glial tumors which infiltrate into healthy adjacent brain tissue, frequently occurring in both boys and girls aged 5-10 years.


Glioma is a form of cancer that develops from glial cells of the brain - those cells which support and nourish the neurons.


A hemangiopericytoma is a very rare soft tissue mass due to overgrowth of capillaries that is almost always benign.

Hemoglobin E

Hemoglobin is the protein in the blood that carries oxygen from the lungs throughout the body. One abnormal form of hemoglobin is known as hemoglobin E.

Hemolytic Anemia

Anemia is a disorder in which the body doesn’t have enough red blood cells. Hemolysis is a method whereby red blood cells are broken down and destroyed.

Hemolytic Disease

Hemolytic disease of the newborn is a condition that occurs when a mother’s blood type is not compatible with her unborn fetus.

Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis

The disease is an extreme example of immune system dysfunction, where the body’s own immune system begins to attack important tissues and organs such as the brain, liver and bone marrow.


Hemophilia is a medical condition in which children bleed longer than normal because their blood doesn't clot properly due to a lack of the proteins known as clotting factors.


A hepatoblastoma is a rare tumor that grows from the cells of the liver.

Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma is a serious and life-threatening form of liver cancer. It’s often related to other liver problems, and treatment is most successful if it is diagnosed early.

Hgb C Disease

Hemoglobin C can cause red blood cells to break down earlier than normal, which leads to anemia.

Hgb E Disease

Hgb E disease is a mild disorder, and people who have it may have no symptoms or mild anemia.

Hgb H Disease

Hemoglobin H disease is a form of alpha thalassemia, a medical condition in which the body makes less hemoglobin than usual.

Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP)

The name of the disease can be translated to purple low platelet count of unknown cause.

Immune Deficiency Syndromes

Immune deficiency syndrome refers to a broad range of medical disorders that prevent your body from protecting itself from illnesses such as viruses and bacteria. There are a number of different types of congenital and acquired immune deficiency syndromes that can impact the body in a variety of ways.

Inborn Errors of Metabolism

When a baby has trouble digesting certain foods and turning them into energy, it could be due to inborn errors of metabolism.

Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome

Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a disease that is known for causing polyps different areas of the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly the colon. Polyps are clusters of cells that form on the lining of the GI tract.

Kostmann’s Syndrome

Kostmann's syndrome is a disease of the bone marrow where children are born without a type of white blood cell which are normally used to fight infection.

Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease of children in which a certain immature normal white blood type grows uncontrollably.


Leiomyosarcoma is a very rare type of soft tissue cancer that affects the smooth muscles of the body.


There are several types of Leukemia. Some of the most common types are AML and ALL. A rare form of leukemia known as CLL can also affect children.


Liposarcoma is a cancer of fat cells. It can occur anywhere in the body, but is commonly found in the abdomen, thigh or shoulder area.

Liver Tumors

Liver tumors are abnormal growths within the liver that can be either benign or cancerous.


Lymphomas are a type of cancer involving lymphocytes, which are cells within the immune system that help the body fight off infections.

Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma

Malignant fibrous histiocytoma is a rare form of cancer in children known as a soft tissue sarcoma. These are tumors that affect muscle, bone or cartilage, or tissues that support/connect other organs.

Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor

When the sheath that protects the peripheral nerves develops cancer in its cells, this is known as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, or MPNST.

Malignant Rhabdoid Tumor

A malignant rhabdoid tumor is a rare fast growing childhood cancer that commonly occurs in infants and young children.

Medullary Thyroid Cancer

MTC is a form of cancer that originates in a particular cell in the thyroid gland that secretes a hormone which plays an important role regulating calcium levels in the body.


Of cancerous brain tumors that can affect children, medulloblastoma is the most common. They represent about 20 percent if childhood brain tumors, particularly in children between the ages of 3 and 8 years, with boys affected more than girls.

Megaloblastic Anemia

Megaloblastic anemia is a type of anemia where the bone marrow produces fewer and abnormally large, oval shaped red blood cells, with underdeveloped inside contents.


Melanocytes are the cells in the body’s skin that produce melanin. Melanin is the pigment that gives skin its color. When cancer develops in the melanocytes, it is known as melanoma.

Metabolic Storage Diseases

Metabolic storage diseases are a fairly large group of rare genetic inherited disorders in which specific enzymes of a child's cell are insufficient. Enzymes help break down certain materials within the cell for proper cell function.

Microcystic Adnexal Carcinoma

Microcystic adnexal carcinoma is a rare cancer that forms in the sweat glands.

Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma

Mucoepidermoid carcinomas are a distinct type of tumor that are one of the most common causes of salivary gland cancer, though they can also impact other areas of the body.

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 and 2

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is a disease that affects several glands throughout the body, including the thyroid, parathyroid and pituitary gland.

Myelodysplastic Syndrome

Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is referred to a group of different types of cancer. But they all impact the bone marrow and prevent it from developing mature, healthy blood cells.

Myxoid Liposarcoma

Liposarcomas are a rare form of cancer that develop in the body’s fat cells. Myxoid liposarcoma is one subtype of liposarcoma.


Neuroblastoma is a form of cancer that primarily affects children. Among infants, it ranks as the most common form of cancer. It usually occurs in the adrenal glands above the kidneys, but can also start anyway along the nerves in the back.


Neurofibrosarcoma is a rare type of malignant cancer in children that develops in the cells of the sheath of the arms and legs, spreading along the nerves.

Non-Ossifying Fibroma

A NOF is a common, benign fibrous tissue tumor in boys and girls that is usually found in the thigh or shin bones but can occur in other bones.

Ocular Tumors

Ocular tumors are any type of tumor that impacts the eyeball or the surrounding area. They can be benign or malignant.

Odontogenic Tumors

Odontogenic tumor is the medical term for a growth or cyst that affects the jaw.


An osteochondroma is a common non-cancerous tumor of bone that typically grows near the growth plate, the area of cartilage near the ends of the long bones.


Osteopetrosis keeps building up bone without the ability to remove the excess. Therefore people with the condition have bones that are very dense and more likely to fracture than normal bones.


Osteosarcoma is a very common type of bone cancer that affects older children and adolescents. It usually starts in the areas of long bones that are still growing, like at the ends of the thigh, shin or upper arm.

Palatal Tumors

The palate is another word for the roof of the mouth. When abnormal growths of cells known as tumors impact the palate, these are commonly known as palatal tumors.


Pancreatoblastoma is rare form of cancer that develops in the lining of the pancreas.

Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common form of thyroid cancer and forms in the cells of the thyroid gland, a small organ located at the front of the neck.


A pheochromocytoma is a rare type of non-cancerous tumor in children that arises in the adrenal gland, which are organs that lie just above the kidneys that secretes a group of chemicals, or hormones, that are part of the body’s response to danger known as “flight or fight” response (e.g. they regulate heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, pupil size, change blood flow from skin to muscles among other functions..

Platelet Function Disorders

A blood disorder in which a child has less than the normal number of platelets, or a normal number of platelets than don't function properly.

Plexiform Fibrohistiocytic Neoplasm

Plexiform fibrohistiocytic neoplasms, also known as plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumors, are a rare form of cancer that impacts the skin and tissue beneath the skin.


Polycythemia is a rare and serious blood disease that causes the bone marrow to produce too many red blood cells to circulate in the blood stream.

Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors (PNET)

Primitive neuroectodermal tumors are a group of cancers that start in nerve cells formed in the fetus during early development that haven't developed the way they should have.

Rare Bleeding Disorders

Rare bleeding disorders refer to many uncommon types of medical conditions that impact the body’s ability to stop bleeding, or clot blood properly.

Red Blood Cell Disorders

Red blood cells are the component of blood that carries oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body. There are a large number of hereditary and acquired disorders that affect the production, number, shape, hemoglobin content and friability of red blood cells.

Renal Cell Carcinoma

Renal cell carcinoma is the most common form of kidney cancer. This type of kidney cancer forms in the tubes that direct fluid in and out of the kidneys.

Rhabdoid Tumor

A rhabdoid tumor is a fast-growing cancer that most frequently develops in the body’s soft tissues, the kidneys or the brain and spinal cord.

Rhabdoid Tumor Predisposition Syndrome

Rhabdoid tumors are abnormal growths that frequently affect the brain, kidneys or spinal cord, among other parts of the body.


Rhabdomyosarcoma is a type of soft tissue cancer that can affect any of the skeletal muscles, or voluntary muscles, of the body occurring in boys more often than girls.

Sacrococcygeal Teratoma

A sacrococcygeal teratoma is a tumor containing a number of different tissues (fat, bone, nerves etc.) that is present at birth in the tailbone of the newborn baby.


Sarcomas are rare kinds of cancers that affect the body’s soft tissues. They are given different names depending on the type of cell or tissue involved including muscles, tendons, bone, fat, etc.


A seminoma is a form of testicular cancer that impact the germ cells (reproductive cells) in men and boys.

Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome

Shwachman-Diamond syndrome is a rare complex disorder that affects a child's bone marrow, pancreas, bones, and sometimes other parts of the body.

Sickle Cell Disease

Sickle cell disease is a group of familial red blood cell disorders. Sickle cell disease causes the red blood cells to be oddly shaped, and have difficulty flowing through the blood vessels properly which causes them to break up easily resulting in anemia and damage to the organs.

Spinal Cord Tumors

A tumor that grows in the tissues around, or spreads from a different site to the spinal cord region, it is known as a spinal cord tumor.

Spindle Cell Sarcoma

A spindle cell sarcoma is a form of soft tissue cancer that most commonly affects the bones.

Synovial Chondromatosis

The synovial membrane is a thin layer of tissue that lines the part of a joint that acts as a shock absorber between joints of bones. When the synovium thickens and fragments break off, the pieces may grow, calcify and become loose in the joint. This is synovial chondromatosis.

Synovial sarcoma

Synovial sarcomas are a rare form of slow growing soft tissue cancer that commonly forms around the joints in the arms or legs in adolescent or young adults.

Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor

A tenosynovial giant cell tumor is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor that can impact the soft tissue around the joints of bones.


A teratoma is a fairly common congenital type of solid tumor that contains normal looking tissues like hair, teeth and bone (and very rarely whole organs).

Testicular Tumors

Testicular tumors are growths on the testicle. They occur in infant boys, or after boys enter puberty.


Thalassemia is a blood disorder in which the body produces hemoglobin that doesn’t function properly.


Thrombocytopenia is the condition where there is a low platelet count and this results in bleeding because the blood doesn't clot properly.

Thrombocytopenia-Absent Radius Syndrome

TAR syndrome is a rare disorder present at birth that is characterized by the absence of a bone called the radius in both forearms, as well as thrombocytopenia (low platelet count) and short stature.


Thrombophilia is an abnormality of the normal blood clotting mechanisms. This increases the chance of blood vessels clotting anywhere in the body.

Thyroid Disorders

Please see Thyroid Nodules for further information.

Undifferentiated Embryonal Sarcoma of the Liver

Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver, or UESL for short, is a rare form of liver cancer that primarily affects children.

Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma

An undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma is a form of cancer that develops in the soft tissue of the body.

Vascular Anomalies

Vascular anomalies is a broad term that refers to blood vessels or lymphatic vessels that grow or form in unusual way. Many birthmarks are due to vascular anomalies, but they can occur for other reasons, as well.

Vitamin K deficiency bleeding

When there is a lack of Vitamin k blood doesn't clot and bleeding results.

White Blood Cell Disorders

White blood cells (also called leukocytes) are the cells in your blood that help your body fight off infection.

Wilms’ Tumor

Wilm's tumor is a rare type of cancer that starts in the kidney and occurs most often in children ages 3 or 4.

Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the immune system and the blood coagulation system.

Yolk Sac Tumor with Mature Teratoma

A yolk sac tumor and a teratoma are both categorized as germ cell tumors, which means they develop in the reproductive cells of the body.