Conditions We Treat
Acetabular dysplasia is more commonly known as hip dysplasia. It refers to a hip socket that is shallow and doesn’t fully cover the ball of the femur (hip). The result is excessive mobility or stress on the hip joint that can cause pain.
Learn more about Acetabular Dysplasia.
Please see Bone Dysplasia for further information.
Aneurysmal Bone Cyst
When a blood-filled growth occurs in the bones of the arms, legs, skull, trunk or spine, then it might be an aneurysmal bone cyst.
Learn more about Aneurysmal Bone Cyst.
When one or more of the bones in the foot or the ankle breaks, this is known as an ankle or foot fracture. They can vary greatly in severity depending on what area of the foot or ankle is impacted.
Learn more about Ankle/Foot Fractures.
Arm spasticity refers to uncontrolled and abrupt movements known as spasms that frequently occur in the arms.
Learn more about Arm Spasticity.
When blood supply is cut off to the bone, leading to the death of bone tissue, this is known as avascular necrosis.
Learn more about Avascular Necrosis.
Back Pain in Children
Back pain in children is most commonly related to an injury, a muscle strain, overuse of the back or some combination of these causes.
Learn more about Back Pain in Children.
Birth-related Brachial Plexus Injury - Shoulder Dystocia
Birth-related brachial plexus palsy refers to injury of the nerves that lead from the cervical (neck) spinal cord to the arm. These nerves can be injured during a difficult delivery. The result is weakness and/or loss of sensation in the affected arm.
Learn more about Birth-related Brachial Plexus Injury - Shoulder Dystocia.
Dwarfism is a type of short stature. There are hundreds of different medical conditions that can affect ultimate size and/or the growth of an infant.
Learn more about Bone Dysplasia.
Bowlegs are a curvature of the legs such that when the feet are placed together, the knees are not touching (the opposite of knock knees).
Learn more about Bowlegs.
Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injuries
The brachial plexus is a network of peripheral nerves that originate in the neck region and branch off to various muscles of the arm to control movement and sensation in the shoulders, arm, forearm and hand. Injuries to the brachial plexus are most commonly seen in newborns during the process of child-birth. Other causes may include motor vehicle accidents or tumors that may affect the nerves.
Learn more about Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injuries.
Broken bones, or fractures, are very common in children and occur when excessive force is applied to a bone.
Learn more about Broken Bones.
A bunion is a hard bump that develops on the inside of the foot where the joint of the big toe meets the foot.
Learn more about Bunions.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a neurological disorder, often as a consequence of events in the early years of life, which affect the neurological function at various levels. Children may have difficulty in moving in a coordinated manner, learning and behavioral problems or seizures.
Learn more about Cerebral Palsy.
Cerebral Palsy from Birth-Related Complications
Cerebral palsy is a condition that impacts the muscles, posture and movement. People with the disorder often have trouble moving or walking due to the limitations created by this condition. In many cases, complications that occur at birth can lead to cerebral palsy.
Learn more about Cerebral Palsy from Birth-Related Complications.
A tumor that forms on or in the bones might be an chondroma.
Learn more about Chondromas.
Chondromyxoid fibroma is a benign tumor, which means it doesn’t lead to cancer. The tumor is made from cartilage and occurs near the ends of bones.
Learn more about Chondromyxoid Fibroma.
A cleft foot is a birth defect that involves a deep space missing from the foot that extends toward the ankle.
Learn more about Cleft Foot.
Clubfoot is a medical condition in which an infant’s foot or feet are turned inward, either to the side or almost facing upward.
Learn more about Clubfoot.
Congenital Femoral Deficiency
The femur is the upper leg bone that connects the knee to the hip. In some children, a birth defect causes the femur to be shorter than it should be. This lead to other developmental issues, such as deformity and instability of the hip and knee. Congenital femoral deficiency typically impacts just one femur, though it can affect both.
Learn more about Congenital Femoral Deficiency.
Congenital Limb Differences
Any kind of problem with how an arm or leg develops in the fetus can be classified as a congenital limb defect.
Learn more about Congenital Limb Differences.
Congenital Pseudarthrosis of the Tibia
The tibia is the inner bone of the two bones that make up the lower leg and connect the ankle to the knee. And a pseudoarthrosis is a bone fracture that fails to heal properly on its own. When this pseudoarthrosis of the tibia is present at birth, it is known as congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia and can cause a variety of other complications over time.
Learn more about Congenital Pseudarthrosis of the Tibia.
Congenital Spine Anomalies
Congenital deformities of the spine are usually identified at birth. Many are minor bony abnormalities that cause no problem and are only found during X-rays done for other reasons.
Learn more about Congenital Spine Anomalies.
Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH)
DDH is a spectrum of conditions that range from a hip that is slightly shallow to a hip that is not in the hip socket. It occurs in 1 to 4% of newborn children.
Learn more about Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH).
Diastrophic dysplasia is a genetic disorder that leads to short stature and other problems. Along with the signs of dwarfism, it can cause several other complications in the body.
Learn more about Diastrophic Dysplasia.
Please see Spinal Cord Injury for further information.
When a joint in the body is injured in such a way that the bones are forced out of position, this is known as a dislocation.
Learn more about Dislocations.
Early Onset Scoliosis
Scoliosis is a medical condition characterized by the side-to-side curvature of the spine. When scoliosis occurs in children before the age of 10 years old, it is commonly called Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS).
Learn more about Early Onset Scoliosis.
Facioscapulohumeral [FSH] Muscular Dystrophy
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy is a common muscular dystrophy which affects certain muscles of the body causing muscle weakness and wasting (atrophy).
Learn more about Facioscapulohumeral [FSH] Muscular Dystrophy.
The femur is the bone that connects the hip to the knee. When the femur gets twisted inward while the baby is in the uterus, it causes femoral anteversion.
Learn more about Femoral Anteversion.
Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) occurs from excessive contact between the proximal femur (hip) and acetabulum (hip socket).
Learn more about Femoroacetabular Impingement.
Fibrous dysplasia is an uncommon bone disease frequently affecting one bone (the skull or long bones of the arms and legs)
Learn more about Fibrous Dysplasia.
The fibula is the outer bone of the two bones that make up the lower leg and connect the ankle to the knee. When part or all of the fibular bone is missing, this can be due to a rare birth defect known as fibular hemimelia. The presence of this disorder can lead to a variety of other deformities and developmental issues.
Learn more about Fibular Hemimelia.
Foot disorders refer to structural abnormalities related to the feet.
Learn more about Foot Disorders.
When a bone breaks in the body, this is known as a fracture.
Learn more about Fractures.
Genetic diseases are conditions that occur due to a mutation in a gene ( a unit of hereditary ) in your body’s cells.
Learn more about Genetic Diseases.
Growth Plate Fractures
The growth plates are the areas in children’s bones where bone growth is still occurring. When a break occurs in these areas, it’s known as a growth plate fracture.
Learn more about Growth Plate Fractures.
Head and Spine Trauma
Head and spine trauma refer to injuries or accidents that affect an individual’s brain and/or spinal cord.
Learn more about Head and Spine Trauma.
Hemophilia is a medical condition in which children bleed longer than normal because their blood doesn't clot properly due to a lack of the proteins known as clotting factors.
Learn more about Hemophilia.
The hip joint is comprised of the head of the thighbone (femur) being positioned in a socket in the pelvis (acetabulum). When an accident or injury forces the thighbone out of the hip socket, this is known as a hip dislocation.
Learn more about Hip Dislocation.
A hip fracture refers to a break in the thigh bone, or femur, close to where it enters the hip socket (acetabulum). The fracture can vary in severity, typically depending on how the injury occurred.
Learn more about Hip Fractures.
Hip Strain and Sprain
A strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon. A sprain is an injury to a ligament. When these injuries occur around the hip, they’re known as hip strains and hip sprains. Most injuries around the hip are strains. Hip sprains are extremely rare.
Learn more about Hip Strain and Sprain.
When the spine begins to curve sideways rather than being straight, this medical condition is known as scoliosis. Of the many different types of scoliosis, idiopathic scoliosis is the most common.
Learn more about Idiopathic Scoliosis.
In-toeing is a fairly common condition among toddlers in which the toes point inward rather than straight ahead.
Learn more about In-Toeing.
Jarcho-Levin syndrome is a disorder that causes problems with the bones of the spine and ribs.
Learn more about Jarcho-Levin Syndrome.
Arthritis is a common medical condition that involves swelling, irritation and pain in the joints of the body. When this impacts children, it’s known as juvenile arthritis.
Learn more about Juvenile Arthritis.
Klippel-Feil syndrome is a genetic disorder of the spine that is present at birth.
Learn more about Klippel-Feil Syndrome.
Knock Knees Symptoms and Treatment
Kyphosis is a curving of the spine that causes a bowing or rounding of the back, which leads to a hunchback or slouching posture.
Learn more about Kyphosis.
Larsen syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that babies can be born with. It primarily affects the structure and development of bones, but it can vary widely in its presentation. Common symptoms of Larsen syndrome include clubfeet, scoliosis, a greater range of joint movement than usual (hypermobility) and other abnormalities.
Learn more about Larsen Syndrome.
Leg Length Discrepancy
Most people have a slight difference in the length of their legs, but when the difference in leg length is significant it can cause problems with mobility and development. This is when it’s a medical condition known as leg length discrepancy, or LLD.
Learn more about Leg Length Discrepancy.
Legg-Calve-Perthes is one of the more common orthopedic disorders in children. It occurs when blood supply to the hip point is temporarily disrupted, causing damage to the bone.
Learn more about Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease.
Limb Deformities and Limb Length Discrepancies
Limb deformities can refer to any abnormalities related to the growth and development of the arms or legs. A limb length discrepancy is more specific and refers to arms or legs that are different lengths from one another.
Learn more about Limb Deformities and Limb Length Discrepancies.
The lumbar is the lower portion of the spine. When it curves inward, this state is known as lordosis.
Learn more about Lordosis.
Madelung's deformity is a condition where the wrist joint is not properly aligned such that the hand develops a deviation over time.
Learn more about Madelung's Deformity.
Melorheostosis is a rare genetic disorder that affects that cortex, which is the outer layer of the bones.
Learn more about Melorheostosis.
When the front half of the foot is turned inward at birth, the condition present may be metatarsus adductus.
Learn more about Metatarsus Adductus.
Please see Spasticity and Movement Disorders for further information.
Multiple Hereditary Exostoses
Multiple hereditary exostoses is a genetic condition in which an individual develops multiple bone tumors on the ends of the bones, often at the ends of long bones or on the hips or shoulder blades.
Learn more about Multiple Hereditary Exostoses.
Muscle Weakness (Hypotonia)
A general lack of strength in one area of the body or many areas of the body is known as muscle weakness.
Learn more about Muscle Weakness (Hypotonia).
If an infection impacts a child’s muscles, bones or joints, it’s known as a musculoskeletal infection.
Learn more about Musculoskeletal Infections.
A musculo-skeletal tumor refers to any abnormal mass or growth in the body that impacts the bones or muscle tissue.
Learn more about Musculo-skeletal Tumors.
Nerves are the system of fibers that carry signals from the brain to the rest of the body. When an injury or damage occurs to one or many nerves, these are known as nerve injuries.
Learn more about Nerve Injuries.
Neurocutaneous syndromes is a broad term for a group of rare neurological lifelong disorders that cause tumors to grow inside the spinal cord, brain, skin, skeletal bones and other organs.
Learn more about Neurocutaneous Syndromes.
Neurofibromatosis is a medical term that refers to a group of three unique but related disorders of the nervous system: neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and schwannomatosis.
Learn more about Neurofibromatosis.
Neuromuscular diseases are a large complex group of different types of disorders (for example muscular dystrophies) which affect the cells in the spinal cord, the nerves, the junction between the nerve and muscle (neuromuscular junction) and/or the muscles, that allow for muscle movement.
Learn more about Neuromuscular Disorders.
When the curvature is caused by problems related to the spinal cord, the brain or the muscles of the body, it can be classified as neuromuscular scoliosis.
Learn more about Neuromuscular Scoliosis.
Nursemaid's elbow occurs when a child’s elbow gets pulled, causing it to dislocate partially.
Learn more about Nursemaid's Elbow.
Obstetrical Brachial Plexus Palsy/Injury
Brachial plexus birth injury refers to damage to the brachial plexus that occurs at birth, and may be related to a difficult labor and delivery.
Learn more about Obstetrical Brachial Plexus Palsy/Injury.
Osgood-Schlatter disease is an irritation of the growth center at the knee joint.
Learn more about Osgood-Schlatter Disease.
An osteoblastoma is a rare non-cancerous tumor of bone that affects teenage boys more often than girls and most often occurs in the lower spine.
Learn more about Osteoblastoma.
OCD is a bone/cartilage/joint abnormality in which small fragments/pieces of bone or cartilage die, come loose from the rest of the bone, and then lie in a joint. It is most common in the knees, elbows, hips and ankles of adolescents (though can occur at any age) 10-20 years of age.
Learn more about Osteochondritis.
An osteochondroma is a common non-cancerous tumor of bone that typically grows near the growth plate, the area of cartilage near the ends of the long bones.
Learn more about Osteochondroma.
Osteogenesis imperfecta is a genetic disorder present at birth that causes brittle bones that break easily.
Learn more about Osteogenesis Imperfecta.
An osteoid osteoma is non-cancerous growth of bone and abnormal bone called osteoid, that frequently develops in the femur or tibia of young boys between the ages of 5-25 years.
Learn more about Osteoid Osteoma.
Osteosarcoma is a very common type of bone cancer that affects older children and adolescents. It usually starts in the areas of long bones that are still growing, like at the ends of the thigh, shin or upper arm.
Learn more about Osteosarcoma.
Out-toeing is a condition that can occur in children in which the toes point outward rather than straight ahead.
Learn more about Out-Toeing.
Peripheral Nerve Injuries
Please see Brachial Plexus Injuries for further information.
Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis
PVNS is rare, benign (non-cancerous, non-spreading) slowly growing tumor of the synovium. The synovium is a layer of tissue that lines joints and tendons of the body. PVNS is frequently found in the knee or hip joint.
Learn more about Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis.
Plantar Fasciitis in Kids
Plantar fasciitis is a medical term that refers to pain in the heel of the foot. It’s the most common type of heel pain.
Learn more about Plantar Fasciitis in Kids.
Plexiform neurofibromas are a rare, benign (non-cancerous) form of tumor that can occur almost anywhere in the body, such as the face, arm, back, chest, legs and elsewhere.
Learn more about Plexiform Neurofibroma.
Pseudoachondroplasia is a genetic condition that causes a form of dwarfism. The disease is present at birth, but it’s often not noticed until the child is three to five years old, as the symptoms do not become noticeable until the child begins to grow.
Learn more about Pseudoachondroplasia.
Ptergyium syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by webs of skin across the knee joints and other joints of the body, such as the fingers and toes.
Learn more about Ptergyium Syndrome.
The radius and ulna are the two bones that make up the forearm. When a child has abnormal connection between these two bones, it is known as radioulnar synostosis.
Learn more about Radioulnar Synostosis.
Schwannoma is most frequently a benign (non-spreading) tumor of both children and young adults that begins in the Schwann cells (the cells of the membrane that protects the nerves) of any peripheral nerve in the body; often in the nerves of the head, neck, arms or legs.
Learn more about Schwannoma.
Scoliosis in children may be present when the spine develops curves to the left or right. The first symptom of scoliosis in children is often uneven shoulders or a protruding shoulder blade that is visible when bending at the waist.
Learn more about Scoliosis.
Sever’s disease is a common cause of heel pain in children. It occurs when the growth plate at the back of the foot gets injured and becomes inflamed. It’s common in early adolescence as the body is growing quickly.
Learn more about Sever's Disease.
Skeletal dysplasias are disorders of the bone and cartilage that may affect the skeleton of a growing fetus. Skeletal dysplasias occur in approximately 1 in every 4,000 births.
Learn more about Skeletal Dysplasia.
Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) occurs when the ball of the hip (epiphysis) slips along the growth plate (physis). This causes a deformity of the hip that causes pain and limits hip motion.
Learn more about Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis.
A snapping hip occurs when a person feels a snapping sensation in his/her hip with certain movements. It can sometimes be accompanied by a noise and sometimes pain.
Learn more about Snapping Hip.
Spasticity and Movement Disorders
Spasticity is one form of movement disorder, that presents as increased tone or stiffness of the muscles that causes an inability to produce and control bodily movements.
Learn more about Spasticity and Movement Disorders.
Spinal Cord Injury
The spinal cord is a group of nerves that run down the back of a person that carries messages from the brain to the rest of the body. Acute spinal cord injury in children is fairly uncommon, frequently occurs in adolescents/ young adults and are often male.
Learn more about Spinal Cord Injury.
Spinal Cord Tumors
If a tumor grows within (~ 10%), in the tissues around, or spreads from a different site to the spinal cord region, it is known as a spinal cord tumor.
Learn more about Spinal Cord Tumors.
When a teen athlete has lower back pain, the most common causes are spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis.
Learn more about Spinal Infections.
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)
Spinal muscular atrophy is a rare degenerative disorder in which the nerve cells in the upper and lower parts of the spinal cord don’t function normally, resulting in muscle wasting and weakness.
Learn more about Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA).
Spondyloepiphyseal Dysplasia Congenita
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenital is a disorder present at birth that causes dwarfism, among other complications.
Learn more about Spondyloepiphyseal Dysplasia Congenita.
Please see Spinal Infections for further information.
Please see Spinal Infections for further information.
Tiny cracks in bones are known as stress fractures.
Learn more about Stress Fractures.
A stroke is the term used to describe what happens when blood flow to the brain is blocked or interrupted and brain cells are damaged or die.
Learn more about Stroke/Cerebrovascular Aneurysm.
The synovial membrane is a thin layer of tissue that lines the part of a joint that acts as a shock absorber between joints of bones. When the synovium thickens and fragments break off, the pieces may grow, calcify (become bone-like nodules) and become loose in the joint. This is synovial chondromatosis. Usually this process is benign (non-cancerous), however rarely, SOC may be become malignant.
Learn more about Synovial Chondromatosis.
The tarsal bones are small bones in the feet that are part of the heel, as well as around the heel. When these bones are connected to one another in an abnormal fashion that causes problems, the cause may be tarsal coalition.
Learn more about Tarsal Coalition.
Tendons are cords that connect the bones of the body to the surrounding muscles. If a tendon gets irritated or inflamed, this is known as tendonitis.
Learn more about Tendonitis.
Thoracic Insufficiency Syndrome
The thorax is the portion of the body between the neck and abdomen that includes the spine, and ribs, sternum (breastbone), the chest wall (rib cage), and lungs. TIS is a rare congenital (before birth) complex condition that involves chest wall abnormalities which prevent normal lung growth or breathing.
Learn more about Thoracic Insufficiency Syndrome.
The tibia is the inner bone of the two bones that make up the lower leg and connect the ankle to the knee. When part or all of the tibial bone is missing, this can be due to a rare birth defect known as tibial hemimelia. The presence of this disorder can lead to a variety of other deformities and developmental issues.
Learn more about Tibial Hemimelia.
When the tibia bone of the leg twists inward in children, it can lead to tibial torsion.
Learn more about Tibial Torsion.
Torticollis, or wry neck, is a twisted neck in which the head is tipped to one side, while the chin is turned to the other.
Learn more about Torticollis.
Unicameral Bone Cyst
Unicameral bone cyst is a non-cancerous tumor that can occur inside of bones. The tumors appear as cavities in the bones that have fluid inside them.
Learn more about Unicameral Bone Cyst.
Vertical talus is a deformity of the foot that appears as a severe case of flatfoot.
Learn more about Vertical Talus.
A variety of different medical conditions can lead to walking (gait) abnormalities. The consistent factor is difficulty with walking, which typically includes a pattern of walking that is unusual or that the person cannot control. Many diseases or injuries can lead to abnormalities in how your child walks.
Learn more about Walking Abnormalities.