Orthopedic Conditions we Treat in Children and Teens

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Acetabular Dysplasia

Acetabular dysplasia is more commonly known as hip dysplasia. It refers to a hip socket that is shallow and doesn’t fully cover the ball of the femur (hip). The result is excessive mobility or stress on the hip joint that can cause pain.

ACL (Anterior Cruciate Ligament) Injury

A serious type of knee injury, common in kids and adolescents that play sports. This injury can range widely in severity from a minor sprain to a major tear that makes it difficult to walk.

Ankle/Foot Fractures

When one or more of the bones in the foot or the ankle breaks, this is known as an ankle or foot fracture. They can vary greatly in severity depending on what area of the foot or ankle is impacted.

Anterior Knee Pain

Anterior knee pain is the medical term for pain that occurs at the front of the knee (as opposed to posterior knee pain). It can range from mildly irritating to debilitating in severity.

Avascular Necrosis

When blood supply is cut off to the bone, leading to the death of bone tissue, this is known as avascular necrosis.

Back Pain

Back pain in children is most commonly related to an injury, a muscle strain, overuse of the back or some combination of these causes.

Bone Dysplasia (Dwarfism)

Dwarfism (also known as achondroplasia) is a type of short stature. There are hundreds of different medical conditions that can affect ultimate size and/or the growth of an infant.


Bowlegs are a curvature of the legs such that when the feet are placed together, the knees are not touching (the opposite of knock knees).

Broken Bones (Fractures)

Broken bones, or fractures, are very common in children and adolescents, and occur when excessive force is applied to a bone.


A bunion in children and adolescents is a hard bump that develops on the inside of the foot where the joint of the big toe meets the foot.

Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a neurological disorder, often as a consequence of events in the early years of life, which affect the neurological function at various levels. Children may have difficulty in moving in a coordinated manner, learning and behavioral problems or seizures.

Cerebral Palsy from Birth-Related Complications

Cerebral palsy is a condition that impacts the muscles, posture and movement. People with the disorder often have trouble moving or walking due to the limitations created by this condition. In many cases, complications that occur at birth can lead to cerebral palsy.


A tumor that forms on or in the bones might be an chondroma.

Chondromyxoid Fibroma

Chondromyxoid fibroma is a benign tumor, which means it doesn’t lead to cancer. The tumor is made from cartilage and occurs near the ends of bones.

Cleft Foot

A cleft foot is a birth defect that involves a deep space missing from the foot that extends toward the ankle.


Clubfoot is a medical condition in which an infant’s foot or feet are turned inward, either to the side or almost facing upward.

Congenital Femoral Deficiency

The femur is the upper leg bone that connects the knee to the hip. In some children, a birth defect causes the femur to be shorter than it should be. This lead to other developmental issues, such as deformity and instability of the hip and knee. Congenital femoral deficiency typically impacts just one femur, though it can affect both.

Congenital Limb Differences

Any kind of problem with how an arm or leg develops in the fetus can be classified as a congenital limb defect.

Congenital Pseudarthrosis of the Tibia

A pseudoarthrosis is a bone fracture that fails to heal properly on its own. When this pseudoarthrosis of the tibia is present at birth, it is known as congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia and can cause a variety of other complications over time.

Congenital Spine Anomalies

Congenital deformities of the spine are usually identified at birth. Many are minor bony abnormalities that cause no problem and are only found during X-rays done for other reasons.

Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH)

DDH is a spectrum of conditions that range from a hip that is slightly shallow to a hip that is not in the hip socket. It occurs in 1 to 4% of newborn children.


While levoscoliosis refers to the left-curving spine, dextroscoliosis is a spine that curves to the right. It’s the more common form of scoliosis.

Diastrophic Dysplasia

Diastrophic dysplasia is a genetic disorder that leads to short stature and other problems. Along with the signs of dwarfism, it can cause several other complications in the body.


When a joint in the body is injured in such a way that the bones are forced out of position, this is known as a dislocation.

Early Onset Scoliosis

Scoliosis is a medical condition characterized by the side-to-side curvature of the spine. When scoliosis occurs in children before the age of 10 years old, it is commonly called Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS).

Facioscapulohumeral (FSH) Muscular Dystrophy

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy is a common muscular dystrophy which affects certain muscles of the body causing muscle weakness and wasting (atrophy).

Femoral Anteversion

When the femur gets twisted inward while the baby is in the uterus, it causes femoral anteversion.

Femoroacetabular Impingement

Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) occurs from excessive contact between the proximal femur (hip) and acetabulum (hip socket).

Fibrous Dysplasia

Fibrous dysplasia is an uncommon bone disease frequently affecting one bone (the skull or long bones of the arms and legs)

Fibular Hemimelia

The fibula is the outer bone of the two bones that make up the lower leg and connect the ankle to the knee. When part or all of the fibular bone is missing, this can be due to a rare birth defect known as fibular hemimelia.

Foot Disorders

Foot disorders refer to structural abnormalities related to the feet.


When a bone breaks in the body, this is known as a fracture.

Genetic Diseases

Genetic diseases are conditions that occur due to a mutation in a gene in the body’s cells.

Growth Plate Fractures

The growth plates are the areas in children’s bones where bone growth is still occurring. When a break occurs in these areas, it’s known as a growth plate fracture.


Hemophilia is a medical condition in which children bleed longer than normal because their blood doesn't clot properly due to a lack of the proteins known as clotting factors.

Hip Dislocation

The hip joint is comprised of the head of the thighbone (femur) being positioned in a socket in the pelvis (acetabulum). When an accident or injury forces the thighbone out of the hip socket, this is known as a hip dislocation.

Hip Fractures

A hip fracture refers to a break in the thigh bone, or femur, close to where it enters the hip socket (acetabulum).

Hip Strain and Sprain

A strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon. A sprain is an injury to a ligament. When these injuries occur around the hip, they’re known as hip strains and hip sprains. Most injuries around the hip are strains. Hip sprains are extremely rare.

Idiopathic Scoliosis

Of the many different types of scoliosis, idiopathic scoliosis is the most common.


In-toeing is a fairly common condition among toddlers in which the toes point inward rather than straight ahead.

Iselin's Disease

Iselin’s disease is an overuse injury that can impact the feet of active children.

Juvenile Arthritis

Arthritis is a common medical condition that involves swelling, irritation and pain in the joints of the body. When this impacts children, it’s known as juvenile arthritis.

Knee Fractures

A knee fracture is a broken bone in or around the knee joint. This can involve the kneecap (patella), or the tibia (shin bone) or femur (thighbone) where they join with the knee.

Knee Ligament Injuries

The knee has four ligaments: MCL, LCL, ACL, and PCL. Injuries to one or more of these ligaments can cause a number of problems.

Knee Sprains and Strains

A sprain refers to an injury to a ligament, which are the bands of tissue that join bones to one another. And a strain refers to an injury to the muscles or tendons around the bones. When these injuries occur in the knee, they’re known as knee sprains and strains.

Knock Knees

Knock knees, or knocked knees, is a condition where a child’s legs bend inward at the knee. Knock knee symptoms may include an unusual walking pattern, difficulty walking, and rare instances of pain.

Larsen Syndrome

Larsen syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that babies can be born with. Common symptoms of Larsen syndrome include clubfeet, scoliosis, hypermobility and other abnormalities.

Leg Length Discrepancy

Most people have a slight difference in the length of their legs, but when the difference in leg length is significant it can cause problems with mobility and development. This is when it’s a medical condition known as leg length discrepancy, or LLD.

Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease

Legg-Calve-Perthes is one of the more common orthopedic disorders in children. It occurs when blood supply to the hip point is temporarily disrupted, causing damage to the bone.

Limb Deformities

Limb deformities can refer to any abnormalities related to the growth and development of the arms or legs.

Lower extremity spasticity (leg & foot spasticity)

Spasticity of the lower extremity ranges from mild to very disabling. The affected muscles may be over-active and cause joint contractures (stiff joints).

Madelung's Deformity

Madelung's deformity is a condition where the wrist joint is not properly aligned such that the hand develops a deviation over time.


Melorheostosis is a rare genetic disorder that affects that cortex, which is the outer layer of the bones.

Meniscus Tears

Meniscus is the cartilage in the knee that cushions the joint between the thighbone and shinbone. A tear in this cartilage can cause several symptoms and complications and is known as a meniscus tear.

Metatarsus Adductus

When the front half of the foot is turned inward at birth, the condition present may be metatarsus adductus.

Movement Disorders

Please see Spasticity and Movement Disorders for further information.

Multiple Hereditary Exostoses

Multiple hereditary exostoses is a genetic condition in which an individual develops multiple bone tumors on the ends of the bones, often at the ends of long bones or on the hips or shoulder blades.

Muscle Weakness (Hypotonia)

A general lack of strength in one area of the body or many areas of the body is known as muscle weakness.

Musculoskeletal Infections

If an infection impacts a child’s muscles, bones or joints, it’s known as a musculoskeletal infection.

Musculo-skeletal Tumors

A musculo-skeletal tumor refers to any abnormal mass or growth in the body that impacts the bones or muscle tissue.


Neurofibromatosis (NF) is a medical term that refers to a group of three unique but related disorders of the nervous system: NF1, NF2 and schwannomatosis.

Neuromuscular Disorders

Neuromuscular diseases are a large complex group of different types of disorders (for example muscular dystrophies) which affect the cells in the spinal cord, the nerves, the junction between the nerve and muscle (neuromuscular junction) and/or the muscles, that allow for muscle movement.

Nursemaid's Elbow

Nursemaid's elbow occurs when a child’s elbow gets pulled, causing it to dislocate partially.

Osgood-Schlatter Disease

Osgood-Schlatter disease is an irritation of the growth center at the knee joint.


An osteoblastoma is a rare non-cancerous tumor of bone that affects teenage boys more often than girls and most often occurs in the lower spine.


OCD is a bone/cartilage/joint abnormality in which small fragments/pieces of bone or cartilage die, come loose from the rest of the bone, and then lie in a joint. It is most common in the knees, elbows, hips and ankles of adolescents (though can occur at any age) 10-20 years of age.


An osteochondroma is a common non-cancerous tumor of bone that typically grows near the growth plate, the area of cartilage near the ends of the long bones.

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

Osteogenesis imperfecta is a genetic disorder present at birth that causes brittle bones that break easily.

Osteoid Osteoma

An osteoid osteoma is non-cancerous growth of bone and abnormal bone called osteoid, that frequently develops in the femur or tibia of young boys between the ages of 5-25 years.


Osteosarcoma is a very common type of bone cancer that affects older children and adolescents. It usually starts in the areas of long bones that are still growing, like at the ends of the thigh, shin or upper arm.


Out-toeing is a condition that can occur in children in which the toes point outward rather than straight ahead.

Peroneal Nerve Injury/Palsy

The peroneal nerve is an important nerve in the lower leg. It provides sensory input from the lateral aspect of the lower leg and the dorsum (top) of the foot. It also provides motor input to the muscles responsible for dorsiflexion (lifting the foot off of the ground) and eversion of the foot. When this nerve becomes injured, it can lead to sensation and movement problems, most commonly, a condition known as foot drop.

Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis

PVNS is rare, benign (non-cancerous, non-spreading) slowly growing tumor of the synovium. The synovium is a layer of tissue that lines joints and tendons of the body. PVNS is frequently found in the knee or hip joint.

Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis is a medical term that refers to pain in the heel of the foot. It’s the most common type of heel pain.


Pseudoachondroplasia is a genetic condition that causes a form of dwarfism. The disease is present at birth, but it’s often not noticed until the child is three to five years old, as the symptoms do not become noticeable until the child begins to grow.

Psoriatic Arthritis

Psoriasis is a chronic skin and nail disease. One third of children with psoriasis will have psoriatic arthritis (joint inflammation).

Pterygium Syndrome

Pterygium syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by webs of skin across the knee joints and other joints of the body, such as the fingers and toes.

Radioulnar Synostosis

The radius and ulna are the two bones that make up the forearm. When a child has abnormal connection between these two bones, it is known as radioulnar synostosis.


Scoliosis is a common condition that affects many children and adolescents. Simply put, it is a curvature of the spine.

Sever's Disease

Sever’s disease is a common cause of heel pain in children. It occurs when the growth plate at the back of the foot gets injured and becomes inflamed. It’s common in early adolescence as the body is growing quickly.

Shoulder Fracture

When a bone in shoulder breaks, such as the scapula, proximal humerus or clavicle, this is known as a shoulder fracture.

Sinding-Larsen-Johansson Syndrome

Sinding-Larsen-Johansson syndrome is an overuse injury that impacts the growth plate at the bottom of the kneecap.

Skeletal Dysplasia

Skeletal dysplasias are disorders of the bone and cartilage that may affect the skeleton of a growing fetus. Skeletal dysplasias occur in approximately 1 in every 4,000 births.

Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) occurs when the ball of the hip (epiphysis) slips along the growth plate (physis). This causes a deformity of the hip that causes pain and limits hip motion.

Snapping Hip

A snapping hip occurs when a person feels a snapping sensation in his/her hip with certain movements. It can sometimes be accompanied by a noise and sometimes pain.

Spasticity and Movement Disorders

Spasticity is one form of movement disorder, that presents as increased tone or stiffness of the muscles that causes an inability to produce and control bodily movements.

Spinal Asymmetry

Spinal asymmetry is a common condition that affects many children and adolescents. Simply put, it is a curvature of the spine.

Spinal Cord Injury

The spinal cord is a group of nerves that run down the back of a person that carries messages from the brain to the rest of the body. Acute spinal cord injury in children is fairly uncommon, frequently occurs in adolescents/ young adults and are often male.

Spinal Deformity

Spinal deformity is any condition related to the spine curved or curved too much or too litte may be classified as a spinal deformity in children and adolescents.

Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)

Spinal muscular atrophy is a rare degenerative disorder in which the nerve cells in the upper and lower parts of the spinal cord don’t function normally, resulting in muscle wasting and weakness.

Spondyloepiphyseal Dysplasia Congenita

Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenital is a disorder present at birth that causes dwarfism, among other complications.

Sports Injuries

A wide variety of accidents and injuries are common during athletic participation. These can include fractures, sprains and strains, muscle problems, joint injuries and many others.

Stress Fractures

Tiny cracks in bones are known as stress fractures.

Stroke/Cerebrovascular Aneurysm

A cerebrovascular aneurysm describes a brain blood vessel when it's wall has become weak, bulges and balloons, and fills with blood, put ting pressure on brain tissue or nearby nerves.

Synovial Chondromatosis

The synovial membrane is a thin layer of tissue that lines the part of a joint that acts as a shock absorber between joints of bones. When the synovium thickens and fragments break off, the pieces may grow, calcify and become loose in the joint. This is synovial chondromatosis.

Tarsal Coalition

The tarsal bones are small bones in the feet that are part of the heel, as well as around the heel. When these bones are connected to one another in an abnormal fashion that causes problems, the cause may be tarsal coalition.


Tendons are cords that connect the bones of the body to the surrounding muscles. If a tendon gets irritated or inflamed, this is known as tendonitis.

Tibial Hemimelia

The tibia is the inner bone of the two bones that make up the lower leg and connect the ankle to the knee. When part or all of the tibial bone is missing, this can be due to a rare birth defect known as tibial hemimelia.

Tibial Torsion

When the tibia bone of the leg twists inward in children, it can lead to tibial torsion.


Torticollis, or wry neck, is a twisted neck in which the head is tipped to one side, while the chin is turned to the other.

Unicameral Bone Cyst

Unicameral bone cyst is a non-cancerous tumor that can occur inside of bones. The tumors appear as cavities in the bones that have fluid inside them.

Upper extremity spasticity (arm & hand spasticity)

Upper extremity spasticity refers to increased muscle tone and hyperactive reflexes in the arm. It is usually due to a problem with motor nerves in the brain, and can be caused by cerebral palsy, stroke or traumatic brain injury.

Vertical Talus

Vertical talus is a deformity of the foot that appears as a severe case of flatfoot.

Walking Abnormalities

A variety of different medical conditions can lead to walking (gait) abnormalities. The consistent factor is difficulty with walking, which typically includes a pattern of walking that is unusual or that the person cannot control. Many diseases or injuries can lead to abnormalities in how your child walks.