Pediatric Heart Conditions We Treat
Nicklaus Children's Hospital offers the most innovative, least invasive approaches to treating pediatric heart conditions. Explore the pediatric heart problems we treat below.
Pulmonary Atresia (PA)
Pulmonary atresia is a birth defect of the heart where the valve that controls the flow of blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs does not form, preventing blood picking up oxygen.
Learn more about Pulmonary Atresia (PA).
Anomalous Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery
In a normal heart, the left coronary artery starts in the aorta (the blood vessel that transports blood with oxygen from the heart to the rest of the body including the heart).
Learn more about Anomalous Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery.
Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return
When one or more of these veins are attached to the wrong part of the heart or another blood vessel, it's known as anomalous pulmonary venous return.
Learn more about Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return.
When someone has aortic regurgitation, the aortic valve leaks and allows blood to flow back into the left ventricle, which can cause a number of problems.
Learn more about Aortic Regurgitation.
When someone has aortic stenosis, the aortic valve doesn't open as wide as it should. This prevents blood from flowing out of the heart at its customary rate.
Learn more about Aortic Stenosis.
When there is a hole that connects the two major cardiac arteries to one another, this abnormality is known as aortopulmonary window.
Learn more about Aortopulmonary Window.
Atherosclerosis is the term used to describe the buildup of plaque, or fatty deposits of cholesterol, fat, calcium and other substances in the arteries of the body.
Learn more about Atherosclerosis.
Atrial flutter is a type of arrhythmia, or irregular heartbeats, that impact the atria (upper chambers) of the heart. With atrial flutter, the heart can beat rapidly or irregularly.
Learn more about Atrial Flutter.
Atrial Septal Defect
An Atrial Septal Defect is a heart condition that is present at birth due to abnormal development of the fetal heart during pregnancy.
Learn more about Atrial Septal Defect.
Atrioventricular Canal Defect
Atrioventricual canal defects are birth defects that occur very early on in the development of a fetus. The exact reason they occur is not known.
Learn more about Atrioventricular Canal Defect.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a network of nerves that sends signals between the brain and certain organs to stimulate their activity.
Learn more about Autonomic Dysfunction.
When the inner lining of the heart or the valves of the heart get infected by an organism, the condition is known as bacterial endocarditis.
Learn more about Bacterial Endocarditis.
Barth syndrome is one of a rare group of metabolic genetic disorders that often present with symptoms at birth or within the first few months of life characterized by the baby being smaller than normal (which may or may not last till adulthood), having an enlarged weakened heart, (dilated cardiomyopathy), weakness (skeletal myopathy) of muscles used for movement, and recurrent infections due to a low white blood cell count (neutropenia).
Learn more about Barth syndrome.
Bradycardia is the medical term for a heart rate that is slower than normal.
Learn more about Bradycardia.
Any form of abnormality with the rhythm of your heartbeat, whether it’s fast, slow or irregular, is known as a cardiac arrhythmia.
Learn more about Cardiac Arrhythmia.
If an abnormal tissue grows in the heart it is known as a primary cardiac tumor.
Learn more about Cardiac Tumor.
Cardiomyopathy is a group of diseases that affect the heart muscle. The typically flexible heart muscle turns more rigid, thicker or larger than normal.
Learn more about Cardiomyopathy.
Cerebral Venous Thrombosis/Cerebral Sinovenous Thrombosis
Cerebral venous thrombosis is an increasingly recognized cause of stroke in a newborn baby, or children, about 40% of childhood CSVT’s.
Learn more about Cerebral Venous Thrombosis/Cerebral Sinovenous Thrombosis.
A channelopathy is a disease that is caused by a problem with an ion channel in the body. When something goes wrong with an ion channel, it can cause problems for the nervous system, heart, lungs, muscles and various other body parts.
Learn more about Channelopathies.
Chest Pain in Children and Teenagers
In the vast majority of cases, chest pain is not related to heart problems or a heart attack. Rather, it’s “chest wall pain” that comes from the muscles, ribs or joints within the chest area.
Learn more about Chest Pain in Children and Teenagers.
Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion
Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion is a disorder that occurs when a small part of chromosome 22 is missing at birth. It leads to a wide variety of complications in children born with the disorder.
Learn more about Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion.
Chylothorax is a rare disorder that affects the lungs of infants. Specifically, fluid from the lymphatic system (chyle) flows into the pleural space, or the space between the lungs and the chest wall.
Learn more about Chylothorax.
When something interrupts the flow, or damages the ducts, a leak of lymphatic fluid into the space around the heart is called a Chylopericardium.
Learn more about Chylous Pericardium.
CLOVES syndrome is a very rare congenital disorder that is characterized by the presence of several problems together.
Learn more about CLOVES Syndrome.
Coarctation of the Aorta (COA)
Coarctation of the aorta is a heart condition that is present at birth involving the narrowing of the aorta.
Learn more about Coarctation of the Aorta (COA).
Congenital Heart Defects/Disease
Any unusual physical feature or health problem that is present at the birth of a baby is known as a birth defect or a congenital anomaly.
Learn more about Congenital Heart Defects/Disease.
Congenitally Corrected Transposition of the Great Arteries (CCTGA)
Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries is a birth defect that impacts the heart.
Learn more about Congenitally Corrected Transposition of the Great Arteries (CCTGA).
The rare situation where two identical twin fetuses are connected to one another by their skin and internal organs, is known as conjoined twins or conjoined twinning.
Learn more about Conjoined twins.
Coronary Artery Fistula
A coronary artery fistula is a rare, abnormal, usually congenital defect where a coronary artery, incorrectly enters a heart chamber or different blood vessel.
Learn more about Coronary Artery Fistula.
Cyanotic Heart Disease
Cyanotic heart disease refers to a group of congenital heart defects in babies that present with a characteristic blue color of the skin
Learn more about Cyanotic Heart Disease.
Usually a baby is born with the heart in the left chest. Babies with dextrocardia, have their heart’s on the right side of the chest instead, and frequently have other congenital (before birth) heart abnormalities too.
Learn more about Dextrocardia.
Double Aortic Arch
Normally, the aorta (the large blood vessel that carries blood out of the heart to the rest of the body) develops into one large vessel that arches to the left as it leaves the heart. When a double aortic arch is present, two tubes develop which circle and compress the windpipe and/or food pipe.
Learn more about Double Aortic Arch.
Double Inlet Left Ventricle
Normally the right atrium is connected to the right ventricle which pumps oxygen-poor blood from the body tissues, out to the lungs to get oxygen. The left atrium collects the oxygenated blood from the lungs and is connected to the left ventricle which pumps the oxygen-rich blood out to the body. In double inlet left ventricle, both atria connect to one ventricle and the right ventricle is small.
Learn more about Double Inlet Left Ventricle.
Double Outlet Right Ventricle (DORV)
Double outlet right ventricle means that both the aorta and the pulmonary artery, the body’s two main arteries, come out of the right ventricle.
Learn more about Double Outlet Right Ventricle (DORV).
Ebstein's Anomaly of the Tricuspid Valve
When Ebstein’s anomaly of the tricuspid valve occurs, it means that the tricuspid valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle of the heart is deformed
Learn more about Ebstein's Anomaly of the Tricuspid Valve.
Eisenmenger syndrome is a heart problem that develops over time, as a result of other congenital defects in the heart.
Learn more about Eisenmenger Syndrome.
Endocardial Cushion Defect
An endocardial cushion defect is a congenital abnormality of the heart where the central part of the heart that normally divides it into four chambers is defective.
Learn more about Endocardial Cushion Defect.
Syncope is the medical term for the sudden brief, temporary loss of consciousness that is also known as fainting. Up to 15% of children have fainting episodes.
Learn more about Fainting (syncope).
Generalized Arterial Calcification of Infancy
Generalized arterial calcification of infancy is a rare genetic disorder present at birth that is characterized by calcium buildup in all blood vessels throughout the body.
Learn more about Generalized Arterial Calcification of Infancy.
Heart block is a problem that occurs with the heart’s electrical system. This system controls the speed and the rhythm of the hearts’ beats.
Learn more about Heart Block.
When the heartbeat is interrupted by unusual sounds such as blowing, whooshing or rasping, it’s called a heart murmur.
Learn more about Heart Murmur.
When someone can actually feel the beat of the heart inside their chest, and the sensation feels like the heart is beating too fast, skipping a beat, fluttering or pounding, this is known as heart palpitations.
Learn more about Heart Palpitations.
If a tumor, or a foreign growth of tissue, develops in the heart, it is known as a heart or cardiac tumor. Tumors can develop on the heart tissue (primary, or myxoma) or start elsewhere in the body and spread to the heart (secondary). Some cause cancer (malignant), and some do not (benign).
Learn more about Heart Tumors.
Normally, the pulmonary artery comes off the right ventricle of the heart and splits into two distinct branches to carry blood to the lungs. With this very rare heart abnormality (hemitruncus), the main pulmonary artery and one branch, typically the left, are found in the correct position, however the right one comes out of the ascending aorta.
Learn more about Hemitruncus.
Heterotaxy Syndrome (Isomerism)
Heterotaxy syndrome is a rare birth defect that involves the heart and other organs where a child is born with organs on the opposite side of the body from where they are commonly located.
Learn more about Heterotaxy Syndrome (Isomerism).
High Blood Pressure
Blood pressure is a measurement of the force that blood exerts on the arteries as it flows through them.
Learn more about High Blood Pressure.
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is one of the most complex cardiac defects seen in newborns.
Learn more about Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome.
Inherited Rhythm Disorders
Inherited rhythm disorders are arrhythmias, or irregular heartbeats, that are inherited from family members.
Learn more about Inherited Rhythm Disorders.
Interruption of the Aortic Arch (IAA)
As the aorta carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body, it arches upward before bending around and down. When blood flow is cut off at any point along this arch, it is known as interruption of the aortic arch or an interrupted aortic arch (IAA).
Learn more about Interruption of the Aortic Arch (IAA).
IVH of the newborn is bleeding into the fluid filled cavities of the baby’s brain.
Learn more about Intraventricular Hemorrhage.
When inflammation occurs in the coronary arteries and other medium-sized arteries throughout the body, the condition is known as Kawasaki disease.
Learn more about Kawasaki Disease.
Long QT Syndrome (LQTS)
Long QT syndrome is an electrical problem of the heart that can lead to potentially dangerous arrhythmias which can present with a fainting spell, seizure or even sudden death.
Learn more about Long QT Syndrome (LQTS).
Low Blood Pressure in Children
Low blood pressure is often perceived as preferable to high blood pressure. However, there are situations where blood pressure can become dangerously low and cause symptoms. This typically occurs when the top (systolic) reading is lower than 90 mm Hg, and the bottom blood pressure (diastolic) is lower than 60 mm Hg.
Learn more about Low Blood Pressure in Children.
Lymph nodes are bean shaped organs found in the axilla, neck, groin, chest and abdomen that act as filters for lymph fluid as it circulates around the body. When these glands become swollen and enlarged, the condition is known as lymphadenopathy.
Learn more about Lymphadenopathy.
When a large cluster of abnormal blood vessels develops in a baby and fills up with clear fluid, the condition is known as a lymphatic malformation.
Learn more about Lymphatic Malformations.
When midaortic syndrome is present, the aorta, the main artery that carries blood from the heart to the body is narrowed where it lies in the abdomen.
Learn more about Midaortic Syndrome.
Mitral Valve Defects
The mitral valve separates the two left heart chambers; left atrium from the left ventricle.
Learn more about Mitral Valve Defects.
The myocardium is the thick layer of muscle tissue in the center of the wall of the heart.
Learn more about Myocarditis.
Ostium Primum Atrial Septal Defect
Please see Atrial Septal Defect for further information.
Ostium Secundum Atrial Septal Defect
Please see Atrial Septal Defect for further information.
Please see Tetralogy of Fallot for further information.
Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)
Patent ductus arteriosus is a heart condition that affects some babies soon after birth.
Learn more about Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA).
Patent Foramen Ovale
A PFO is a hole in the tissue that separates the heart's two upper chambers.
Learn more about Patent Foramen Ovale.
The pericardium is a two thin layer sac that surrounds the heart. Normally, there is a small layer of fluid between the inner and outer layers. When the layers become inflamed, or infected, the condition is known as pericarditis.
Learn more about Pericarditis.
Peripheral Pulmonary Stenosis
The pulmonary arteries are the blood vessels that carrying blood from the heart to the lungs for oxygenation and removal of carbon dioxide. When one or more of the branches of the pulmonary arteries are narrowed the condition is known as peripheral pulmonary stenosis.
Learn more about Peripheral Pulmonary Stenosis.
Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS)
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is a form of rapid heartbeat that occurs when an individual moves from a sitting or lying position to a standing position.
Learn more about Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS).
Premature Ventricular Contractions
The ventricles are the lower chambers of the heart. When these chambers experience extra heartbeats that cause problems for a person’s overall heart rate, this is known as a premature ventricular contraction.
Learn more about Premature Ventricular Contractions.
Learn more about Pulmonary Atresia.
Hypertension means high blood pressure, but in the case of pulmonary hypertension, the high pressure affects the pulmonary arteries that take blood from the heart to the lungs.
Learn more about Pulmonary Hypertension.
The pulmonary valve controls the flow of blood from the heart out to the lungs. When this valve leaks, it allows blood to flow backward into the heart before it can travel to the lungs. This leak is known as pulmonary regurgitation.
Learn more about Pulmonary Regurgitation.
Pulmonary stenosis is usually a congenital heart defect, which means that babies are born with it.
Learn more about Pulmonary Stenosis.
Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease
Rheumatic fever is a disease caused by the body's inflammatory response to a bacterial infection caused by a group A streptococcus bacterial infection of the throat.
Learn more about Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease.
A septal defect is a hole in the tissue that separates two adjacent chambers of the heart.
Learn more about Septal Defects.
Shone’s syndrome, is a rare form of congenital heart disease where there is a combination of four left-sided heart defects.
Learn more about Shone's Syndrome.
Single Ventricle Heart Defects (SVD)
The ventricles are two of the hearts’ four chambers (the other two are called atria). The ventricles are responsible for pumping blood out of the heart.
Learn more about Single Ventricle Heart Defects (SVD).
Sinus Node Dysfunction
The sinus node is a group of cells within the heart that establishes its rhythm. When something goes wrong with the sinus node, it can cause an arrhythmia, or heart rhythm problem.
Learn more about Sinus Node Dysfunction.
Sinus Venosus Atrial Septal Defect
Please see Atrial Septal Defect for further information.
Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT)
Supraventricular tachycardia is one type of fast heart arrhythmia; a quite common one in children is one in which the heart beats at an abnormally fast, regular heart rate from an abnormal electrical impulse that arises from the atria (upper chambers) of the heart.
Learn more about Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT).
Symptoms that might Indicate a Heart Problem
As there are many causes of heart problems in children, and because of this symptoms will vary depending on the cause. Many of these symptoms occur in children without heart disease.
Learn more about Symptoms that might Indicate a Heart Problem.
Syncope is the medical term for fainting which is a brief, temporary loss of consciousness.
Learn more about Syncope.
Tachycardia is the medical term for a rapid heartbeat.
Learn more about Tachycardia.
Tetralogy of Fallot
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a heart condition of several (“tetralogy” refers to four) defects present at birth that occur due to abnormal development of the heart during pregnancy.
Learn more about Tetralogy of Fallot.
Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return
Ordinarily, oxygen-rich blood in the body enters the heart from the lungs through a series of four veins that feed into the left atrium ( the heart’s left upper chamber ) of the heart.
Learn more about Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return.
Transposition of the Great Arteries
Transposition of the great arteries is a heart condition that is present at birth due to abnormal development of the fetal heart during pregnancy, in which the two major arteries that carry blood from the heart to the lungs and the body are wrongly connected.
Learn more about Transposition of the Great Arteries.
Tricuspid atresia is a problem with the development of the right side of the heart where this valve has not developed, with a smaller than normal lower right pumping chamber ( right ventricle).
Learn more about Tricuspid Atresia.
With truncus arteriosus, the body only has one vessel leading out of the heart, and the oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood are mixed together.
Learn more about Truncus Arteriosus.
Turner syndrome is a condition that affects girls and women, it is caused by a missing or partially missing X chromosome. Clinical symptoms include short stature, delayed puberty, infertility, learning disabilities and heart defects.
Learn more about Turner Syndrome.
Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion
Twin reversed arterial perfusion is a rare disorder that sometimes occurs in identical twins that share a placenta, where one twin has a poor functioning cardiac system receives blood from the healthy twin.
Learn more about Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion.
When a vascular ring occurs, the aorta and/or its smaller branches develop in such a way that they form a ring around both the trachea (which carries air to the lungs) and the esophagus (which carries food to the stomach).
Learn more about Vascular Ring.
Velo-cardio facial syndrome has a number of common features including a cleft palate, heart abnormalities, and a characteristic looking face, and many others.
Learn more about Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome.
Ventricular Septal Defect
Ventricular septal defect is a defect that babies are born with. It is often present with other heart problems.
Learn more about Ventricular Septal Defect.
Ventricular tachycardia is the medical term for a rapid heartbeat that affects the ventricles, or the lower chambers of the heart.
Learn more about Ventricular Tachycardia.
WPW syndrome is a rare disorder of the heart's electrical system.
Learn more about Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome.