Conditions We Treat
Abdominal Wall Abnormalities
When an infant has a birth defect that involves an opening in the abdomen, this is known as an abdominal wall abnormality or abdominal wall defect.
Learn more about Abdominal Wall Abnormalities.
Acetabular Labral Tears
The labrum is the cartilage ring at the edge of your hip socket. When this ring of cartilage tears, it’s known as an acetabular labral tear.
Learn more about Acetabular Labral Tears.
When a newborn infant's genitals are not clearly male or female, the infant is said to have ambiguous genitalia. The baby genitals may have external features of both sexes and/or the sex organs may not match his/her internal sex organs or their genetic sex.
Learn more about Ambiguous Genitalia.
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome
Androgen insensitivity syndrome is a genetic condition in which an individual has the X and Y chromosome of a male, but an incomplete or absent development of male genitalia. It occurs because the body does not respond to male hormones known as androgens.
Learn more about Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome.
Ankyloglossia is called tongue-tie because it limits the use of the tongue. It may lead to problems with speech or eating.
Learn more about Ankyloglossia.
Please see Imperforated Anus for further information.
Anterior Knee Pain
Anterior knee pain is the medical term for pain that occurs at the front of the knee (as opposed to posterior knee pain). It can range from mildly irritating to debilitating in severity.
Learn more about Anterior Knee Pain.
The appendix is a finger-like blind-ended tube that arises at the junction of the small and large intestines in the abdomen. Appendicitis is a very common acute infection/inflammation of the appendix usually occurring in children between the ages of 10-19 years.
Learn more about Appendicitis.
Atresia is a medical term that means that a body part that is tubular in nature does not have a normal opening, or lacks the ability to allow material to pass through it.
Learn more about Atresia.
Benign Skin Growths
Any marks, bumps, moles, lumps, spots, skin tags or other imperfections on the skin that are not cancerous are known as benign skin growths.
Learn more about Benign Skin Growths.
Binder syndrome is a congenital disorder characterized by a flat, underdeveloped midface and nose. The jaw might also be affected, and the face may appear imbalanced.
Learn more about Binder Syndrome.
Birth Defects and Congenital Anomalies
Any unusual physical feature or health problem that is present at the birth of a baby is known as a birth defect or a congenital anomaly.
Learn more about Birth Defects and Congenital Anomalies.
Bladder Exstrophy and Epispadias
Bladder exstrophy is a complex birth defect in which in which the bladder is outside of the abdomen. It usually occurs together with epispadias, a defect in the urethral opening.
Learn more about Bladder Exstrophy and Epispadias.
Bladder Outlet Obstruction
When a person has difficulty urinating, this is often due to bladder outlet obstruction. With BOO, something is causing a blockage in the bladder and preventing the urine from flowing out of the body. The blockage can be partial or complete.
Learn more about Bladder Outlet Obstruction.
Dwarfism is a type of short stature. There are hundreds of different medical conditions that can affect ultimate size and/or the growth of an infant.
Learn more about Bone Dysplasia.
Botulism is an illness caused by a toxin produced by bacteria called Clostridium botulinum that normally live in the soil, dust and cooked agricultural products.
Learn more about Botulism.
Branchial Cleft Remnant
Branchial cleft remnants are visible birth defects that can occur on the neck. They appear in the form of sinuses or cysts and are problems with the connective tissue that form the structure of the neck.
Learn more about Branchial Cleft Remnant.
Cerebrocostomandibular syndrome is an extremely rare congenital disorder that impacts the jaw and mouth.
Learn more about Cerebrocostomandibular Syndrome.
When a baby is born with a large mass or tumor on his or her neck, this is known as a cervical teratoma. These are often benign, or non-cancerous, but they can cause other complications. If they occur in adults, they are often cancerous.
Learn more about Cervical Teratoma.
Chest Wall Deformities
Conditions that cause physical abnormalities of the chest are known as chest wall deformities.
Learn more about Chest Wall Deformities.
If a duct draining bile from the liver is dilated or shows an out-pouching in a particular segment, this is called a choledochal cyst.
Learn more about Choledochal Cysts.
If an unusual growth of skin is present in the middle ear, right behind the eardrum, this is often known as a cholesteatoma.
Learn more about Cholesteatoma.
Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction
In order for food to make its way through the digestive tract, it relies on a process of involuntary muscle contractions known as peristalsis. When peristalsis doesn’t work properly due to nerve or muscle problems, this is known as chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.
Learn more about Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction.
Chronic Kidney Disease
The kidneys are critical organs that remove waste and excess water from the blood and direct it into your urine. When the kidneys lose function, this is known as chronic kidney disease.
Learn more about Chronic Kidney Disease.
Cirrhosis of the Liver
Cirrhosis is a fancy term for scarring of the liver. It can occur due to alcohol abuse, hepatitis, and other reasons.
Learn more about Cirrhosis of the Liver.
Cloaca Anomaly is a major malformation of the intestinal genital and urinary tracts in females.
Learn more about Cloaca Anomaly.
Cloacal exstrophy is a birth defect that is linked to malformations of the urinary bladder, portions of the rectum and intestines, vaginal structures in females, and pelvis.
Learn more about Cloacal Exstrophy.
Complete Tracheal Rings
The trachea is the windpipe, and trachea rings are rings of cartilage that enhance the structure of the trachea and prevent it from collapsing. Normally, tracheal rings are C-shaped. But complete tracheal rings have an O-shape that can lead to complications.
Learn more about Complete Tracheal Rings.
Complex Cutis Aplasia
Complex cutis aplasia is a disorder where skin is missing from a portion of the scalp in one or more areas. It occurs at birth in rare cases in some infants.
Learn more about Complex Cutis Aplasia.
Congenital Anomalies of the Esophagus and Trachea
Congenital anomalies of the esophagus and trachea are problems with either the esophagus or the trachea (the windpipe) that are present at birth. There are several different kinds that vary in nature and severity.
Learn more about Congenital Anomalies of the Esophagus and Trachea.
Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia
The diaphragm is the muscular boundary that helps separate the contents of the chest from those of the abdomen. When there’s a hole within the diaphragm of a growing fetus while it’s in the mother’s womb, this is known as a congenital diaphragmatic hernia, or CDH.
Learn more about Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia.
Congenital Growth and Development Defects
Congenital growth and developmental defects is the broad general term used to describe defects that occur as the fetus is growing within its mother’s womb.
Learn more about Congenital Growth and Development Defects.
Congenital High Airway Obstruction Syndrome
Learn more about Congenital High Airway Obstruction Syndrome.
Congenital Neck Masses
Any swollen area of lump (cyst) located on the neck can be classified as a congenital neck mass. They can be large and physically disturbing, or barely noticeable to the naked eye.
Learn more about Congenital Neck Masses.
The rare situation where two identical twin fetuses are connected to one another by their skin and internal organs, is known as conjoined twins or conjoined twinning.
Learn more about Conjoined twins.
Cornelia de Lange Syndrome
Cornelia de Lange syndrome is a rare genetic disorder than can impact things such as facial features, limbs, and overall physical and intellectual growth. Signs of the disease are typically present at birth and even before.
Learn more about Cornelia de Lange Syndrome.
Craniofacial is a broad medical term that describes abnormalities of the bones of the skull and face.
Learn more about Craniofacial Abnormalities.
A bluish tinge of the lips, tongue, nail beds or skin is called cyanosis. There are 2 types: Central cyanosis and Acrocyanosis. Central cyanosis occurs because of a lack of oxygen in the red cells of blood and is never normal. Acrocyanosis is usually normal in babies and occurs when the extremities (hands and feet are cold), appear blue but not the lips, or tongue which normally appear pink in color.
Learn more about Cyanosis.
Cystic Lung Disease
When abnormal growths known as cysts develop in your lungs, this is known as cystic lung disease. There are many different types of cystic lung disease that can vary in presentation and severity.
Learn more about Cystic Lung Disease.
The word dentoalveolar refers to the teeth and the sockets that the teeth rest in. When bacteria enters a tooth through a hole (caries), crack in the tooth, poor hygiene, thin enamel etc. causing a localized infection in or around the tooth (abscess), or if the infection spreads from the tooth to cause deep infections in the neck, it’s known as a dentoalveolar infection.
Learn more about Dentoalveolar Infections.
Dermoid cysts in infants and children are typically embryologic remnants where tissue that was supposed to be on the outer layer of the baby develops under the skin. This cause a small firm mass to develop. They are commonly found at the eyebrow, nose, and scalp.
Learn more about Dermoid Cyst.
Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Thyroid cancer is cancer that impacts the thyroid gland, a butterfly-shaped gland located in the neck. The most common types of thyroid cancers are known as differentiated thyroid cancers.
Learn more about Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.
Disorders of the Facial Nerve and Skull Base
The Facial nerve emerges from the brainstem through the side of the skull to control the muscles of the face, and to transmit taste sensations from the tongue and mouth. All disorders are categorized by unusual movement, weakness or paralysis of all or part of the face.
Learn more about Disorders of the Facial Nerve and Skull Base.
Drug-induced Liver Disease
If use on over-the-counter medications, prescriptions medications, herbs and supplements or illegal drugs ultimately leads an individual to develop liver problems, this is known as drug-induced liver disease.
Learn more about Drug-induced Liver Disease.
Duplex Collecting System
In a normal urinary tract, the ureters are two thin tubes in the abdomen, one each connecting a kidney to the bladder. These enable the removal of urine from the body. When a duplex collecting system is present, two ureters (one draining the upper part of a kidney-the other draining the lower half) connect each kidney to the bladder. Often a ballooning of the ureter (ureterocele) occurs in the ureter draining the top half of the kidney, close to the bladder which with its lower bladder position may cause urinary reflux (backflow of urine from the bladder towards the kidney-vesicoureteral reflux-VUR, and hydronephrosis-swelling of the kidney).
Learn more about Duplex Collecting System.
Please see Bone Dysplasia for further information.
The ureters are the tubes in the body that drain urine from the kidneys to the bladder. A ureter that is not connected to the bladder, and drains somewhere else is known as an ectopic ureter.
Learn more about Ectopic Ureter.
The elbow joint is where the humerus, ulna and radius bones come together. When a break occurs at the joint, this is known as an elbow fracture.
Learn more about Elbow Fracture.
Elbow Ligament Injury
Ligaments are bands of tissue that connect bones to one another. The elbow has three ligaments: The annular ligament, the radial collateral ligament and the ulnar collateral ligament. When an injury occurs to one of these ligaments, it is known as an elbow ligament injury.
Learn more about Elbow Ligament Injury.
The pleura are the smooth coverings between the lungs and the chest wall. Usually they are in close contact with only a small space and a little lubricating fluid between them (pleural space). When this space fills with pus, it’s known as an empyema.
Learn more about Empyema.
Please see Bladder Exstrophy and Epispadias for further information.
When a fetus’s esophagus, the tube that carries food to the stomach, does not develop correctly, the defect is known as esophageal atresia.
Learn more about Esophageal Atresia.
When the esophagus becomes inflamed, it’s known as esophagitis.
Learn more about Esophagitis.
Pancreatitis is a disease that affects the pancreas, causing pain and other symptoms. Familial pancreatitis refers to pancreatitis that occurs in a family with a rate that is greater than would be expected by chance alone.
Learn more about Familial Pancreatitis.
Many problems that arise with the liver over time are related to alcohol abuse. In the absence of alcohol abuse, when more than 5 percent of a person’s liver mass develops increased fat accumulation, this is known as fatty liver disease.
Learn more about Fatty Liver.
Fibro Adipose Vascular Anomaly
FAVA is a rare but painful lump (mass) that develops in a muscle (usually involving a limb) where the muscle tissue is replaced by tough fibrous (scar-like) tissue, fatty tissue and abnormal blood vessels. Diagnosis is often delayed till late childhood or adolescence.
Learn more about Fibro Adipose Vascular Anomaly.
The gallbladder is a pouch located beneath the liver that stores bile before sending it along to the small intestine. Any medical condition that impacts the gallbladder can be lumped into the category of “gallbladder disease”.
Learn more about Gallbladder Disease.
A ganglion cyst is a lump that frequently develops near joints or tendons of the wrist or hand. The contents of the cyst resemble joint fluid. The cyst can cause pain or limited mobility.
Learn more about Ganglion Cyst.
Gastrointestinal polyposis refers to a group of diseases that are known for causing polyps in the stomach, colon, or other areas of the gastrointestinal tract. Polyps are abnormal growths that form on the lining of the GI tract.
Learn more about Gastrointestinal Polyposis.
Gastroschisis and Omphalocele
Gastroschisis and omphalocele are both part of a relatively uncommon group of birth defects that involve an opening or hole in the abdominal wall, frequently on the right side of the belly button.
Learn more about Gastroschisis and Omphalocele.
Genetic/Metabolic Diseases of the Liver
Certain disorders that children are born with can make it difficult for the liver to process certain nutrients, such as fats, proteins or carbohydrates. This group of disorders is known as genetic/metabolic diseases of the liver.
Learn more about Genetic/Metabolic Diseases of the Liver.
A Hamartoma is a benign, or noncancerous tumor. It is a mixture of normal tissues/cells that grow abnormally in the place where the tissue/cells normally are found.
Learn more about Hamartoma.
Red blood cells in the urine is known as hematuria and is quite common in children. Hematuria can be “gross”- that is obviously bloody, smokey or tea colored or “microscopic” which means the blood can only be seen under a microscope (it only requires investigation if present on three consecutive urine specimens).
Learn more about Hematuria.
Normally, the pulmonary artery comes off the right ventricle of the heart and splits into two distinct branches to carry blood to the lungs. With this very rare heart abnormality (hemitruncus), the main pulmonary artery and one branch, typically the left, are found in the correct position, however the right one comes out of the ascending aorta.
Learn more about Hemitruncus.
A hepatoblastoma is a rare tumor (cancerous- spreads) that grows from the cells of the liver.
Learn more about Hepatoblastoma.
Hereditary Paraganglioma-Pheochromocytoma Syndrome
Hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma syndrome is a genetic condition that’s passed down through families. Individuals with the condition are more likely to develop two rare forms of cancer. One is known as paragangliomas, which are tumors on the spine or lower skull.
Learn more about Hereditary Paraganglioma-Pheochromocytoma Syndrome.
A hernia is the extension of a portion of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening in the wall that normally contains it.
Learn more about Hernia.
Horseshoe kidney is a disorder in which the two kidneys are fused together as one at the lower end giving it a horseshoe-shaped “U” form.
Learn more about Horseshoe Kidney.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted viral infection in the USA (yearly, half occur among adolescents/young adults); it is most frequently spread through unprotected sexual contact with an infected partner (though it can be spread at the time of infant delivery or by non-sexual skin-to-skin routes which is the frequent mode of spread in children).
Learn more about Human Papillomavirus.
A hydrocele is a collection of fluid in the sac surrounding the testis lying in the scrotum. It usually occurs on one side but may occur over both testicles.
Learn more about Hydroceles.
Hyperhidrosis is the medical term for excessive sweating.
Learn more about Hyperhidrosis.
Congenital hyperinsulinism is a rare genetic condition in which the cells of the body that are responsible for producing insulin (beta cells) produce too much resulting in low blood sugar and a variety of complications. This conditions are called congenital hyperinsulinism.
Learn more about Hyperinsulinism.
The pituitary gland is a small gland located at the base of the brain that impacts functions throughout the body. When the gland doesn’t produce enough needed hormones, this is known as hypopituitarism.
Learn more about Hypopituitarism.
Hypospadias is a structural birth defect that results in the opening of the penis not being at its tip; its opening being anywhere on the underside of the penis between the scrotum and the lower underside of the penis.
Learn more about Hypospadias.
If a baby is born without an anus (the opening at the end of the digestive tract), then this birth defect is known as an imperforated anus.
Learn more about Imperforated Anus.
An inguinal hernia is a swelling in the groin area (inguinal canal) which contains bowel. It/they may occur on one or both sides and are most frequently (80-90%) found in boys (more commonly on the right side).
Learn more about Inguinal Hernias.
Interstitial Lung Disease
Childhood Interstitial lung disease is a broad term that applies to a rare complex group of different conditions in children (mostly infants) that primarily share a common abnormality of the air sacs and the scar like tissue that surrounds them, leading to difficulty in getting oxygen to the tissues and removing the carbon dioxide produced by them during metabolism.
Learn more about Interstitial Lung Disease.
Intestinal Atresia and Stenosis
Intestinal atresia, a type of birth defect, refers to a complete block in an area of the intestines of a baby. It occurs when the intestines aren’t formed properly.
Learn more about Intestinal Atresia and Stenosis.
The actions of the muscles and nerves in the gastrointestinal tract that mix and move food (muscle contraction and relaxation) along is the known as motility. When something goes wrong with this action in the muscles or in the nerves of the intestines, this is referred to as intestinal dysmotility.
Learn more about Intestinal Dysmotility.
Intestinal Malrotation and Volvulus
Intestinal malrotation is a defect that is present at birth. It occurs when the intestines do not rotate into the proper position as they are developing in the unborn fetus. One common complication of intestinal malrotation is known as volvulus, which is when the intestine twists in such a manner that it cuts off its own blood supply.
Learn more about Intestinal Malrotation and Volvulus.
When part of the intestine folds in on itself and blocks the flow of materials through the intestine, this condition is known as intussusception. It can have potentially serious consequences.
Learn more about Intussusception.
Atresia is a medical term that means the opening within the hollow of an organ (in this case the intestine) is blocked. Jejunal atresia arise when this portion of the intestine (the jejunum) fails to develop properly. In one form of jejunal atresia, this portion of the bowel wraps around an artery that supplies blood to the colon, giving the appearance of an apple peel. Jejunal atresia is a defect that is present at birth.
Learn more about Jejunal Atresia.
Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome
Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a disease that is known for causing polyps different areas of the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly the colon. Polyps are clusters of cells that form on the lining of the GI tract.
Learn more about Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome.
A kidney stone is a solid, hard, pebble-like object that forms in a child’s kidneys when normal urine substances (like calcium, oxalates, magnesium and phosphorus) become very concentrated. There are 4 main types of kidney stones- those containing primarily calcium, cystine, uric acid or struvite.
Learn more about Kidney Stones.
A knee fracture is a broken bone in or around the knee joint. This can involve the kneecap (patella), or the tibia (shin bone) or femur (thighbone) where they join with the knee.
Learn more about Knee Fractures.
Knee Overuse Injuries
Overuse injuries of the knee are problems that occur with the knees due to performing a repetitive motion. They include issues such as runner’s knee, IT band syndrome, patellar tendinitis and others.
Learn more about Knee Overuse Injuries.
When the body develops normally, the larynx (voice box) sits above the trachea (windpipe), right next to the esophagus. If a laryngeal cleft is present, there’s a gap between the larynx and esophagus that can allow food or liquids to enter the trachea.
Learn more about Laryngeal Cleft.
Laryngeal papilloma is a disease that leads to wart-like growths on the larynx, or voice box. These are non-cancerous, but they can grow quickly and tend to recur even after being removed.
Learn more about Laryngeal Papilloma.
The larynx, or voice box, ordinarily sits above the trachea, which is the windpipe that leads to the lungs. When the tissue of the larynx is soft and covers the opening of the trachea, this is known as laryngomalacia.
Learn more about Laryngomalacia.
Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a genetic disorder that increases the risk of getting certain forms of cancer in children and adults.
Learn more about Li-Fraumeni Syndrome.
Edema is the medical term for swelling. When swelling occurs due to a blockage in the lymphatic system, this is known as lymphedema.
Learn more about Lymphedema.
Occlusion is the medical term that refers to the alignment of the teeth. Normally the upper teeth should fit over the lower teeth slightly. Malocclusion simply means that the upper teeth of the jaw are irregularity in contact with the lower jaw teeth.
Learn more about Malocclusion.
The mastoid is the portion of the bony skull that is located behind the ear. The mastoid bone is quite porous and can be prone to infection. When an infection spreads to the mastoid bone it is call mastoiditis.
Learn more about Mastoiditis.
The urethra is the tube from the bladder through which urine passes before it exits the body through a hole at the tip of the penis called the meatus. Mental stenosis is a common, abnormal narrowing of the meatus generally occurring in young boys.
Learn more about Meatal Stenosis.
Meckel's diverticulum is a defect that is present at birth. It’s characterized by a pouch that is a leftover of the umbilical cord that has tissue like the stomach or pancreas within.
Learn more about Meckel's Diverticulum.
The ureter is the tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Megaureter literally means large ureter. This problem can lead to infections and potentially severe complications.
Learn more about Megaureter.
Meniscus is the cartilage in the knee that cushions the joint between the thighbone and shinbone. A tear in this cartilage can cause several symptoms and complications and is known as a meniscus tear.
Learn more about Meniscus Tears.
When the sutures in the middle of the forehead of an infant close earlier than they should, it’s known as metopic synotosis. A triangular pointed skull is a noticeable sign of this condition.
Learn more about Metopic Synostosis.
The hymen is a thin half moon layer of tissue that commonly surrounds part of the vagina in girls. If the hymen covers the entire vagina and has only one very small hole in the center of it, it is known as microperforate hymen.
Learn more about Microperforate Hymen.
Mixed Gonadal Dysgenesis
Mixed gonadal dysgenesis is a sex developmental disorder where the gonads are abnormal from there being some cells with XY chromosomes and some with just a single X (chromosome Y mosaicism).
Learn more about Mixed Gonadal Dysgenesis.
Cysts are a lump or bump that is non-cancerous and appears on part of the body. A mucous cysts gets its name because it often results from mucus clogging a gland and leading to the formation of the cyst.
Learn more about Mucous Cyst.
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is a disease that affects several glands throughout the body, including the thyroid, parathyroid and pituitary gland. It causes tumors in these glands and also imbalances in the hormones that the glands produce. The pancreas and small intestine are also impacted by the disease.
Learn more about Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1.
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 is a disease that affects several glands throughout the body, including the thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal gland. It causes tumors in these glands and also imbalances in the hormones that the glands produce. It differs from multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 based on the genetic mutation that causes it, and some of the glands that it impacts.
Learn more about Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2.
Myasthenia Gravis in Children
MG in a rare chronic autoimmune disease in children of all ages, it is characterized by muscle weakness of varying degree in many different areas of the body, it commonly affects the eyes, mouth, throat, arms and legs.
Learn more about Myasthenia Gravis in Children.
Nasal obstruction or congestion simply refers to the inability to breathe properly through the nose. It’s a broad term that can refer to everything from the typical stuffy nose that accompanies a cold or flu, to a structure problem that obstruct the nose, such as a deviated septum.
Learn more about Nasal Congestion.
Nasolacrimal Duct Obstructions
Tears normally drain from the eye through small openings in the corners of the eyelids, entering the nose through the nasolacrimal duct (tear duct). When the tear ducts are blocked it’s known as nasolacrimal duct (or tear duct) obstruction.
Learn more about Nasolacrimal Duct Obstructions.
When the lining of the intestines dies off inpremature or even term/pre term infants shortly after birth, this condition is known as necrotizing enterocolitis.
Learn more about Necrotizing Enterocolitis.
Neurogenic bladder means the bladder of a baby/child doesn’t empty properly because of problems with the brain, spinal cord or nerves that control bladder function, essentially paralyzing it.
Learn more about Neurogenic Bladder.
Noonan syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by features such as heart defects, short stature, unique facial features and other physical abnormalities.
Learn more about Noonan Syndrome.
Obstructive uropathy is a condition in which there is a blockage of the urine flow in the tube that carries urine between the kidneys and the bladder, or anywhere to the external urethral meatus.
Learn more about Obstructive Uropathy.
Odontogenic tumor is the medical term for a growth or cyst that affects the jaw.
Learn more about Odontogenic Tumors.
Oromandibular Limb Hypoplasia Syndrome
This syndrome is a very rare group of a number of conditions all of whom have congenital (occuring before birth) malformations of the tongue, upper and lower jaw (maxilla and mandible), with some having variable limb abnormalities as well.
Learn more about Oromandibular Limb Hypoplasia Syndrome.
An overuse injury is a type of injury that occurs not from one sudden, traumatic accident, but rather from the repetition of a motion over and over again for months or years that ultimately causes damage to a part of the body.
Learn more about Overuse Injuries.
The palate is another word for the roof of the mouth. When abnormal growths of cells known as tumors impact the palate, these are commonly known as palatal tumors.
Learn more about Palatal Tumors.
Pancreatitis in Children
Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas. The pancreas is an abdominal organ found in the upper part of the abdomen which plays an important role in digestion and controlling the body’s blood sugar.
Learn more about Pancreatitis in Children.
Pectus carinatum, also known as pigeon chest, is a chest wall deformity in which the sternum (breastbone) and ribs protrude. Other names are chest protrusion, protruding chest or protruding sternum.
Learn more about Pectus Carinatum.
Pectus excavatum, Latin for “hollowed chest,” is the most common chest wall deformity. It may also be referred to as sunken chest, hollow chest, or concave chest.
Learn more about Pectus Excavatum.
Pelvic Pain in Girls
Pain below the umbilicus, in the lower part of the abdomen and between the hip bones is referred to as pelvic pain.
Learn more about Pelvic Pain in Girls.
An ulcer is an open sore in the skin, or in the lining tissue of the mouth to the anus (mucus membranes of the gastrointestinal tract ).
Learn more about Peptic Ulcers.
The perichondrium is a thin dense layer of tissue that surrounds cartilage and which provides it with nutrients. Cartilage is found associated with a number of bones in the body, and forms the firm tissue of the mobile parts of the ear or nose. Perichondritis is an infection of the perichondrium and a common site for an infection is the outer soft part of the ear.
Learn more about Perichondritis.
Peripheral Nerve Injuries
Please see Brachial Plexus Injuries for further information.
The peripheral nerves are the vast network of nerves that transmits messages from the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) to the rest of the body. When these nerves don’t function normally it is known as a peripheral neuropathy.
Learn more about Peripheral Neuropathy.
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is a genetic disorder that causes affected individuals to develop polyps in their intestines. Polyps are small growths of tissue that are typically non-cancerous, but they can increase the risk of cancer developing over time. Other symptoms can also occur with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.
Learn more about Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome.
A pheochromocytoma is a rare type of non-cancerous tumor in children (ages 6-14 years) that arises in the adrenal gland (organs that lie just above the kidneys) which secretes a group of chemicals (hormones) that are part of the body’s response to danger (“flight or fight” e.g. they regulate heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, pupil size, change blood flow from skin to muscles among other functions).
Learn more about Pheochromocytomas.
Phimosis and Paraphimosis
Pathological phimosis results from small tears at the tip of the foreskin when it's forcibly retracted or from poor hygiene and infections which lead to scarring of the foreskin.
Paraphimosis is a related condition where the foreskin of an uncircumcised or partially circumcised penis gets stuck behind the head of the penis.
Learn more about Phimosis and Paraphimosis.
A non-cancerous tumor that affects a hair follicle is known as pilomatrixoma. These usually affect the hair on the head or neck but can occur elsewhere on the body, as well.
Learn more about Pilomatrixoma.
Pilonidal disease is one or more skin openings between the top of the cheeks of the buttocks. A pilonidal sinus is a small tunnel in the skin which may fill with fluid (when it’s a pilonidal cyst it contains, hair, dirt and skin debris) or infected bloody secretions (when it’s called a pilonidal abscess). It’s more common in adult men (though can occur particularly in hairy adolescents).
Learn more about Pilonidal Disease.
The pleura are two membranes, (with minimal space between them - the pleura cavity, containing a small amount of lubricating fluid), that lie between the lung and the chest wall. A pneumothorax is air in the pleural cavity. Air leaks into the pleural space can occur suddenly or gradually and may be simple (without buildup of significant pressure but with some stable collapse of the lung) or complicated (from air continuing to leak into the pleural space causing increasing lung collapse -called a tension pneumothorax, with further chest problems).
Learn more about Pneumothorax.
Polycystic Kidney Disease
PKD is a kidney disorder where numerous cysts enlarge in both kidneys reducing the amount of normal kidney tissue and thereby the kidney’s ability to function normally, leading to kidney failure.
Learn more about Polycystic Kidney Disease.
Polyposis refers to a group of diseases that are known for causing polyps in the stomach or other areas of the gastrointestinal tract. Polyps are clusters of cells that form on the lining of the GI tract that carry the risk of cancer over time and cause other problems.
Learn more about Polyposis.
Posterior Urethral Valves
The urethra is the tube that connects the bladder to the tip of the penis in boys. Posterior urethral valve is a birth defect (congenital) where a baby is born with small, narrow urethral leaflets (valves) that have a very narrow opening (of varying size) which partially blocks the flow of urine leaving the bladder allowing urine in the bladder to “back up” causing damage to the urethra, bladder, ureters and kidneys.
Learn more about Posterior Urethral Valves.
A preauricular pit is a small hole and tract/cyst under the skin of the face just in front of the ear.
Learn more about Preauricular Pits.
Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis
The bile ducts are channels that are responsible for carrying a digestive juice known as bile from the liver to the small intestine. In primary sclerosing cholangitis, the bile ducts narrow and harden due to inflammation and ultimately can cause serious liver damage.
Learn more about Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.
Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis
Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis is one of many types of progressive liver diseases that ultimately lead to liver failure.
Learn more about Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis.
When the body unexpectedly loses needed protein during digestion, this might be due to a a symptom of a disease called protein-losing enteropathy. This is mainly caused by obstruction of lymph tissue, inflammation or changes to the barrier with in the gut wall.
Learn more about Protein-Losing Enteropathy.
Psoriasis is a chronic skin and nail disease that frequently presents in young people 15-35 years of age though approximately 33% present under the age of 20 years. One third of children with psoriasis will have psoriatic arthritis (joint inflammation).
Learn more about Psoriatic Arthritis.
Ptosis is a drooping eyelid with the upper eyelid falling to a lower position than normal.
Learn more about Ptosis.
When the valve is narrowed by thickening of the muscles that make up the pylorus, blocking the passage of food, the condition is known as pyloric stenosis or hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.
Learn more about Pyloric Stenosis.
Pyriform Aperture Stenosis
Pyriform aperture stenosis is a birth defect that affects the face and nose. The common presentation is a narrow nasal opening due to the upper jaw bone being larger than normal.
Learn more about Pyriform Aperture Stenosis.
Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis
Please see Laryngeal Papilloma for further information.
Retinopathy of Prematurity
ROP is an eye disease affecting the retina (the tissue at the back of the eye that senses light, sending those signals to the brain to be interpreted as sight) that occurs in some babies who are born very immature (before 31 weeks gestation/1250 grams or less-a normal full term pregnancy is 38-42 weeks).
Learn more about Retinopathy of Prematurity.
Rhabdoid Tumor Predisposition Syndrome
Rhabdoid tumors are abnormal growths that frequently affect the brain, kidneys or spinal cord, among other parts of the body.
Learn more about Rhabdoid Tumor Predisposition Syndrome.
Rotator Cuff Injury
The collection of tendons and muscles that surround the shoulder joint and hold the joint in position are known as the rotator cuff. Rotator cuff injuries can take a variety of forms, including tears, tendinitis from overuse, impingement and more.
Learn more about Rotator Cuff Injury.
The larynx is another term for the voice box in the throat. The saccule is a portion of the larynx that produces mucus to lubricate it. When cysts form in the saccule, they are known as saccular cysts.
Learn more about Saccular Cysts.
A sacrococcygeal teratoma is a tumor containing a number of different tissues (fat, bone, nerves etc.) that is present at birth in the tailbone (coccyx) of the newborn baby.
Learn more about Sacrococcygeal Teratoma.
Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Sensorineural hearing loss is one of many types of hearing loss. It occurs due to damage to the inner ear (cochlea), or the nerves that connect the inner ear to the brain.
Learn more about Sensorineural Hearing Loss.
Sepsis is a complication that can occur in the body’s bloodstream as the result of an infection.
Learn more about Sepsis.
Severe Facial Injuries
Facial injuries involve the face and/or upper jaw and include injuries to the skin, facial bones, nose, sinuses, eye socket or teeth.
Learn more about Severe Facial Injuries.
When a bone in shoulder breaks, such as the scapula, proximal humerus or clavicle, this is known as a shoulder fracture.
Learn more about Shoulder Fracture.
Spasticity and Contractures
Spasticity and contractures are conditions in which muscle imbalance across a joint leads to abnormal positioning and tightness. Spasticity refers to involuntary tightening or stiffening of muscles. The term contracture refers to abnormal positioning of a joint.
Learn more about Spasticity and Contractures.
Sprains and Strains
Sprains and strains are two related but slightly different injuries. If the ligaments, or bands of tissue that connect the bones in a joint, get stretched or torn, this is a sprain. If a muscle or tendon, the bands of tissue that connects muscles to bones, get stretched or torn, this is known as a strain.
Learn more about Sprains and Strains.
Learn more about Strabismus.
The subglottis is the lower portion of the larynx (voice box), below the vocal cords. When the airway narrows at this point, this is known as subglottic stenosis.
Learn more about Subglottic Stenosis.
Temporomandibular Joint Disorders
The temporomandibular joint is the area where the lower jaw connects to the base of the skull. It’s surrounded by muscles and ligaments all of which have to work well together. Any condition that impacts any part of the system can cause a problem with the temporomandibular joint.
Learn more about Temporomandibular Joint Disorders.
The bands of tissue that connect the body’s muscles to the bones are known as tendons. Tendon injuries can range from mild pain due to tendon strains to more severe problems such as torn tendons.
Learn more about Tendon Injuries.
A teratoma is a fairly common congenital (develops before birth) type of solid tumor that contains normal looking tissues like hair, teeth and bone (and very rarely whole organs like, for example eyes).
Learn more about Teratoma.
Each testis is connected to the penis by a spermatic cord which contains blood vessels, nerves, muscles and a tube to carry sperm to the penis. Testicular torsion is the medical term for when a testicle rotates and twists the spermatic cord cutting off its blood supply.
Learn more about Testicular Torsion.
Testicular tumors are growths on the testicle. They occur in infant boys < 2 years of age (when they are usually benign - non-cancerous and don't spread) and after boys enter puberty (when most are malignant; cancerous and can spread).
Learn more about Testicular Tumors.
Tethered Spinal Cord
A tethered cord is held fixed or held taught by a band (usually at the end of the cord) in the spinal canal.
Learn more about Tethered Spinal Cord.
Thyroglossal Duct Cyst
A thyroglossal duct cyst is a mass that forms in the neck, most often in children. It’s formed from leftover tissues that remain in the body after the thyroid gland forms in the fetus.
Learn more about Thyroglossal Duct Cyst.
Please see Thyroid Nodules for further information.
The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped organ located in the front of the base of the neck that produces hormones that regulate many important functions of the body (e.g. breathing, heart rate, brain and nerve function, body weight, temperature muscle strength and many others). A thyroid nodule (or lump) is a fairly rare unusual firm growth of cells that occur within the thyroid gland and there are several types. While thyroid nodules are frequently benign in children (non-cancerous) they are more likely to be cancerous than they are in adults.
Learn more about Thyroid Nodules.
The trachea is another name for the windpipe that delivers air to and from the lungs. When the trachea becomes narrow and negatively impacts breathing, this is known as tracheal stenosis.
Learn more about Tracheal Stenosis.
The trachea (windpipe) to the lungs and the esophagus to the stomach are tubes that are normally close to one another but not connected. When tracheoesophageal fistula is present, the two tubes are connected in one or more places, and openings between them can cause problems.
Learn more about Tracheoesophageal Fistula.
When the walls of the trachea (windpipe) are weak or floppy, the result is tracheomalacia. This causes the windpipe to actually collapse as the person is breathing and make it difficult to draw a breath.
Learn more about Tracheomalacia.
Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion
Twin reversed arterial perfusion is a rare disorder that sometimes occurs in identical twins that share a placenta, where one twin has a poor functioning cardiac system receives blood from the healthy twin.
Learn more about Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion.
A hernia is a common abnormal bulge that is seen or felt when a organ or fatty tissue pushes through a weak spot or hole in muscle or connective tissue. When it occurs in the area of the belly button (umbilicus) it’s called an umbilical hernia, and it’s the intestines that push through the umbilical opening. In babies, umbilical hernias are present at birth and become more noticeable when the baby is crying, coughing or straining to pass a stool. Boys and girls are equally affected.
Learn more about Umbilical Hernias.
Typically by the age of 9 months, an infant boy’s testicles will descend from inside the body into the scrotum. If this does not occur, it is known as undescended testicles.
Learn more about Undescended Testicles.
The ureters connect the kidneys to the bladder and allow urine to pass through. When swelling occurs near the bottom of a ureter where it connects with the bladder, this is known as ureterocele.
Learn more about Ureterocele.
Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction
The ureters connect the kidneys to the bladder and allow urine to pass through. When a blockage occurs where the kidney attaches to the ureter and prevents the flow of urine from the kidneys, this is known as ureteropelvic junction obstruction.
Learn more about Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction.
The urethra is the tube that allows urine to drain from the body. When the inner lining of the urethra protrudes from the opening, this condition is known as urethral prolapse.
Learn more about Urethral Prolapse.
The urethra is the tube that allows urine to drain from the body. When the urethra becomes narrow somewhere along its length for some reason, this can cause complications and is known as urethral stricture.
Learn more about Urethral Stricture.
Vallecular cysts are pockets of infection that develop at the base of the tongue. They are often present at birth but tend to grow worse over time.
Learn more about Vallecular Cysts.
Vascular Malformation in Children
The roof of the mouth, side walls of the throat and back wall of the throat together make up a bodily structure known as the velopharyngeal valve that is important for speech. When something goes wrong with this part of the body, it is known as velopharyngeal dysfunction.
Learn more about Velopharyngeal Dysfunction.
Vertical/Complete Vaginal Septum
A vertical, or complete vaginal septum, refers to a vagina which has a extra wall of tissue dividing the vagina into 2 separate cavities.
Learn more about Vertical/Complete Vaginal Septum.
Urine normally flows one way from the kidneys to the bladder via tubes called the ureters before exiting the body through the urethra. When urine flows backwards from bladder towards the kidneys the condition is called vesicoureteral reflux.
Learn more about Vesicoureteral Reflux.
Vocal Cord Cysts
Vocal cord cysts are masses of tissue surrounded by a membrane, or sac. They typically occur in the vocal cord due to injury from overuse and can cause problems with speaking.
Learn more about Vocal Cord Cysts.
Vocal Cord Paralysis
The vocal cords not only produce sound, they also keep the windpipe free of food and liquid. When the vocal cords stop moving due to problems with nerve impulses, it causes problems with all these vocal cord functions and is known as vocal cord paralysis.
Learn more about Vocal Cord Paralysis.
Vocal Cord Polyps
Vocal cord polyps are lesions that affect the vocal cords. They typically occur in the vocal cord due to injury from overuse and can cause problems with speaking.
Learn more about Vocal Cord Polyps.
Williams syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that causes short stature, developmental delay, unique facial features and growth delays, among many other symptoms including heart problems.
Learn more about Williams Syndrome.
Wrist/Hand Overuse Injury
Overuse injuries, also known as repetitive strain injuries, can occur in the wrists and hands from performing activities that require repetitive motion or using improper technique. Pain is usually experienced in muscles, nerves, ligaments and/or tendons.
Learn more about Wrist/Hand Overuse Injury.
Wrist/Hand Sprains and Strains
A sprain refers to an injury to a ligament, which are the bands of tissue that join bones to one another. And a strain refers to an injury to the muscles or tendons around the bones. When these injuries occur in the hands or wrists, they’re known as wrist/hand sprains and strains.
Learn more about Wrist/Hand Sprains and Strains.