Conditions We Treat

Abdominal Wall Abnormalities

When an infant has a birth defect that involves an opening in the abdomen, this is known as an abdominal wall abnormality or abdominal wall defect. Learn more

Acetabular Labral Tears

The labrum is the cartilage ring at the edge of your hip socket. When this ring of cartilage tears, it’s known as an acetabular labral tear. Learn more

Ambiguous Genitalia

When a newborn infant's genitals are not clearly male or female, the infant is said to have ambiguous genitalia. The baby genitals may have external features of both sexes and/or the sex organs may not match his/her internal sex organs or their genetic sex. Learn more

Ankyloglossia

Ankyloglossia is called tongue-tie because it limits the use of the tongue. It may lead to problems with speech or eating. Learn more

Anorectal Malformation

Please see Imperforated Anus for further information.

Appendicitis

The appendix is a finger-like blind-ended tube that arises at the junction of the small and large intestines in the abdomen. Appendicitis is a very common acute infection/inflammation of the appendix usually occurring in children between the ages of 10-19 years. Learn more

Atresia

Atresia is a medical term that means that a body part that is tubular in nature does not have a normal opening, or lacks the ability to allow material to pass through it. Learn more

Birth Defects and Congenital Anomalies

Any unusual physical feature or health problem that is present at the birth of a baby is known as a birth defect or a congenital anomaly. Learn more

Bladder Exstrophy and Epispadias

Bladder exstrophy is a complex birth defect in which in which the bladder is outside of the abdomen. It usually occurs together with epispadias, a defect in the urethral opening. Learn more

Bladder Outlet Obstruction

When a person has difficulty urinating, this is often due to bladder outlet obstruction. With BOO, something is causing a blockage in the bladder and preventing the urine from flowing out of the body. The blockage can be partial or complete. Learn more

Branchial Cleft Remnant

Branchial cleft remnants are visible birth defects that can occur on the neck. They appear in the form of sinuses or cysts and are problems with the connective tissue that form the structure of the neck. Learn more

Cervical Teratoma

When a baby is born with a large mass or tumor on his or her neck, this is known as a cervical teratoma. These are often benign, or non-cancerous, but they can cause other complications. If they occur in adults, they are often cancerous. Learn more

Chest Wall Deformities

Conditions that cause physical abnormalities of the chest are known as chest wall deformities. The most common are pectus excavatum (sunken chest or funnel chest) and pectus carinatum (pigeon chest). Learn more

Choledochal Cysts

If a duct draining bile from the liver is dilated or shows an out-pouching in a particular segment, this is called a choledochal cyst. Learn more

Cholesteatoma

If an unusual growth of skin is present in the middle ear, right behind the eardrum, this is often known as a cholesteatoma. Learn more

Cloaca Anomaly

Cloaca Anomaly is a major malformation of the intestinal genital and urinary tracts in females. Learn more

Cloacal Exstrophy

Cloacal exstrophy is a birth defect that is linked to malformations of the urinary bladder, portions of the rectum and intestines, vaginal structures in females, and pelvis. Learn more

Congenital Anomalies of the Esophagus and Trachea

Congenital anomalies of the esophagus and trachea are problems with either the esophagus or the trachea (the windpipe) that are present at birth. There are several different kinds that vary in nature and severity. Learn more

Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

The diaphragm is the muscular boundary that helps separate the contents of the chest from those of the abdomen. When there’s a hole within the diaphragm of a growing fetus while it’s in the mother’s womb, this is known as a congenital diaphragmatic hernia, or CDH. Learn more

Congenital Growth and Development Defects

Congenital growth and developmental defects is the broad general term used to describe defects that occur as the fetus is growing within its mother’s womb. Learn more

Congenital High Airway Obstruction Syndrome

If a fetus’s upper airway (windpipe -”trachea” or voice box- “larynx”) becomes blocked during intrauterine development, the problem is called congenital high airway obstruction syndrome, or CHAOS. Learn more

Congenital Neck Masses

Any swollen area of lump (cyst) located on the neck can be classified as a congenital neck mass. They can be large and physically disturbing, or barely noticeable to the naked eye. Learn more

Conjoined twins

The rare situation where two identical twin fetuses are connected to one another by their skin and internal organs, is known as conjoined twins or conjoined twinning. Learn more

Craniofacial Abnormalities

Craniofacial is a broad medical term that describes abnormalities of the bones of the skull and face. Learn more

Cystic Lung Disease

When abnormal growths known as cysts develop in your lungs, this is known as cystic lung disease. There are many different types of cystic lung disease that can vary in presentation and severity. Learn more

Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid cancer is cancer that impacts the thyroid gland, a butterfly-shaped gland located in the neck. The most common types of thyroid cancers are known as differentiated thyroid cancers. Learn more

Disorders of the Facial Nerve and Skull Base

The Facial nerve emerges from the brainstem through the side of the skull to control the muscles of the face, and to transmit taste sensations from the tongue and mouth. All disorders are categorized by unusual movement, weakness or paralysis of all or part of the face. Learn more

Dwarfism

Please see Bone Dysplasia for further information.

Ectopic Ureter

The ureters are the tubes in the body that drain urine from the kidneys to the bladder. A ureter that is not connected to the bladder, and drains somewhere else is known as an ectopic ureter. Learn more

Empyema

The pleura are the smooth coverings between the lungs and the chest wall. Usually they are in close contact with only a small space and a little lubricating fluid between them (pleural space). When this space fills with pus, it’s known as an empyema. Learn more

Epispadias

Please see Bladder Exstrophy and Epispadias for further information.

Esophageal Atresia

When a fetus’s esophagus, the tube that carries food to the stomach, does not develop correctly, the defect is known as esophageal atresia. Learn more

Fibro Adipose Vascular Anomaly

FAVA is a rare but painful lump (mass) that develops in a muscle (usually involving a limb) where the muscle tissue is replaced by tough fibrous (scar-like) tissue, fatty tissue and abnormal blood vessels. Diagnosis is often delayed till late childhood or adolescence. Learn more

Gallbladder Disease

The gallbladder is a pouch located beneath the liver that stores bile before sending it along to the small intestine. Any medical condition that impacts the gallbladder can be lumped into the category of “gallbladder disease”. Learn more

Ganglion Cyst

A ganglion cyst is a lump that frequently develops near joints or tendons of the wrist or hand. The contents of the cyst resemble joint fluid. The cyst can cause pain or limited mobility. Learn more

Gastrointestinal Polyposis

Gastrointestinal polyposis refers to a group of diseases that are known for causing polyps in the stomach, colon, or other areas of the gastrointestinal tract. Polyps are abnormal growths that form on the lining of the GI tract. Learn more

Gastroschisis and Omphalocele

Gastroschisis and omphalocele are both part of a relatively uncommon group of birth defects that involve an opening or hole in the abdominal wall, frequently on the right side of the belly button. Learn more

Hamartoma

A Hamartoma is a benign, or noncancerous tumor. It is a mixture of normal tissues/cells that grow abnormally in the place where the tissue/cells normally are found. Learn more

Hematuria

Red blood cells in the urine is known as hematuria and is quite common in children. Hematuria can be “gross”- that is obviously bloody, smokey or tea colored or “microscopic” which means the blood can only be seen under a microscope (it only requires investigation if present on three consecutive urine specimens). Learn more

Hemitruncus

Normally, the pulmonary artery comes off the right ventricle of the heart and splits into two distinct branches to carry blood to the lungs. With this very rare heart abnormality (hemitruncus), the main pulmonary artery and one branch, typically the left, are found in the correct position, however the right one comes out of the ascending aorta. Learn more

Hepatoblastoma

A hepatoblastoma is a rare tumor (cancerous- spreads) that grows from the cells of the liver. Learn more

Hereditary Paraganglioma-Pheochromocytoma Syndrome

Children with hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma syndrome are often under frequent monitoring due to their high risk of developing cancer. The presence of the tumors, often in large numbers, is the primary sign of this disease. Learn more

Hernia

A hernia is the extension of a portion of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening in the wall that normally contains it. Learn more

Horseshoe Kidney

Horseshoe kidney is a disorder in which the two kidneys are fused together as one at the lower end giving it a horseshoe-shaped “U” form. Learn more

Hydroceles

A hydrocele is a collection of fluid in the sac surrounding the testis lying in the scrotum. It usually occurs on one side but may occur over both testicles. Learn more

Hyperinsulinism

Congenital hyperinsulinism is a rare genetic condition in which the cells of the body that are responsible for producing insulin (beta cells) produce too much resulting in low blood sugar and a variety of complications. This conditions are called congenital hyperinsulinism. Learn more

Hypospadias

Hypospadias is a structural birth defect that results in the opening of the penis not being at its tip; its opening being anywhere on the underside of the penis between the scrotum and the lower underside of the penis. Learn more

Imperforated Anus

If a baby is born without an anus (the opening at the end of the digestive tract), then this birth defect is known as an imperforated anus. Learn more

Inguinal Hernias

An inguinal hernia is a swelling in the groin area (inguinal canal) which contains bowel. It/they may occur on one or both sides and are most frequently (80-90%) found in boys (more commonly on the right side). Learn more

Intestinal Atresia and Stenosis

Intestinal atresia, a type of birth defect, refers to a complete block in an area of the intestines of a baby. It occurs when the intestines aren’t formed properly. Learn more

Intestinal Dysmotility

The actions of the muscles and nerves in the gastrointestinal tract that mix and move food (muscle contraction and relaxation) along is the known as motility. When something goes wrong with this action in the muscles or in the nerves of the intestines, this is referred to as intestinal dysmotility. Learn more

Intestinal Malrotation and Volvulus

Intestinal malrotation is a defect that is present at birth. It occurs when the intestines do not rotate into the proper position as they are developing in the unborn fetus. One common complication of intestinal malrotation is known as volvulus, which is when the intestine twists in such a manner that it cuts off its own blood supply. Learn more

Intussusception

When part of the intestine folds in on itself and blocks the flow of materials through the intestine, this condition is known as intussusception. It can have potentially serious consequences. Learn more

Jejunal Atresia

Atresia is a medical term that means the opening within the hollow of an organ (in this case the intestine) is blocked. Jejunal atresia arise when this portion of the intestine (the jejunum) fails to develop properly. In one form of jejunal atresia, this portion of the bowel wraps around an artery that supplies blood to the colon, giving the appearance of an apple peel. Jejunal atresia is a defect that is present at birth. Learn more

Kidney Stones

A kidney stone is a solid, hard, pebble-like object that forms in a child’s kidneys when normal urine substances (like calcium, oxalates, magnesium and phosphorus) become very concentrated. There are 4 main types of kidney stones- those containing primarily calcium, cystine, uric acid or struvite. Learn more

Laryngeal Cleft

When the body develops normally, the larynx (voice box) sits above the trachea (windpipe), right next to the esophagus. If a laryngeal cleft is present, there’s a gap between the larynx and esophagus that can allow food or liquids to enter the trachea. Learn more

Laryngeal Papilloma

Laryngeal papilloma is a disease that leads to wart-like growths on the larynx, or voice box. These are non-cancerous, but they can grow quickly and tend to recur even after being removed. Learn more

Laryngomalacia

The larynx, or voice box, ordinarily sits above the trachea, which is the windpipe that leads to the lungs. When the tissue of the larynx is soft and covers the opening of the trachea, this is known as laryngomalacia. Learn more

Lymphedema

Edema is the medical term for swelling. When swelling occurs due to a blockage in the lymphatic system, this is known as lymphedema. Learn more

Meatal Stenosis

The urethra is the tube from the bladder through which urine passes before it exits the body through a hole at the tip of the penis called the meatus. Mental stenosis is a common, abnormal narrowing of the meatus generally occurring in young boys. Learn more

Meckel's Diverticulum

Meckel's diverticulum is a defect that is present at birth. It’s characterized by a pouch that is a leftover of the umbilical cord that has tissue like the stomach or pancreas within. Learn more

Megaureter

The ureter is the tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Megaureter literally means large ureter. This problem can lead to infections and potentially severe complications. Learn more

Microperforate Hymen

The hymen is a thin half moon layer of tissue that commonly surrounds part of the vagina in girls. If the hymen covers the entire vagina and has only one very small hole in the center of it, it is known as microperforate hymen. Learn more

Mixed Gonadal Dysgenesis

Mixed gonadal dysgenesis is a sex developmental disorder where the gonads are abnormal from there being some cells with XY chromosomes and some with just a single X (chromosome Y mosaicism). Learn more

Mucous Cyst

Cysts are a lump or bump that is non-cancerous and appears on part of the body. A mucous cysts gets its name because it often results from mucus clogging a gland and leading to the formation of the cyst. Learn more

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is a disease that affects several glands throughout the body, including the thyroid, parathyroid and pituitary gland. It causes tumors in these glands and also imbalances in the hormones that the glands produce. The pancreas and small intestine are also impacted by the disease. Learn more

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 is a disease that affects several glands throughout the body, including the thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal gland. It causes tumors in these glands and also imbalances in the hormones that the glands produce. It differs from multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 based on the genetic mutation that causes it, and some of the glands that it impacts. Learn more

Myasthenia Gravis in Children

MG in a rare chronic autoimmune disease in children of all ages, it is characterized by muscle weakness of varying degree in many different areas of the body, it commonly affects the eyes, mouth, throat, arms and legs. Learn more

Necrotizing Enterocolitis

When the lining of the intestines dies off inpremature or even term/pre term infants shortly after birth, this condition is known as necrotizing enterocolitis. Learn more

Neurogenic Bladder

Neurogenic bladder means the bladder of a baby/child doesn’t empty properly because of problems with the brain, spinal cord or nerves that control bladder function, essentially paralyzing it. Learn more

Noonan Syndrome

Noonan syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by features such as heart defects, short stature, unique facial features and other physical abnormalities. Learn more

Obstructive Uropathy

Obstructive uropathy is a condition in which there is a blockage of the urine flow in the tube that carries urine between the kidneys and the bladder, or anywhere to the external urethral meatus. Learn more

Odontogenic Tumors

Odontogenic tumor is the medical term for a growth or cyst that affects the jaw. Learn more

Oromandibular Limb Hypoplasia Syndrome

This syndrome is a very rare group of a number of conditions all of whom have congenital (occuring before birth) malformations of the tongue, upper and lower jaw (maxilla and mandible), with some having variable limb abnormalities as well. Learn more

Palatal Tumors

The palate is another word for the roof of the mouth. When abnormal growths of cells known as tumors impact the palate, these are commonly known as palatal tumors. Learn more

Pancreatitis in Children

Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas. The pancreas is an abdominal organ found in the upper part of the abdomen which plays an important role in digestion and controlling the body’s blood sugar. Learn more

Peripheral Nerve Injuries

Please see Brachial Plexus Injuries for further information.

Pheochromocytomas

A pheochromocytoma is a rare type of non-cancerous tumor in children (ages 6-14 years) that arises in the adrenal gland (organs that lie just above the kidneys) which secretes a group of chemicals (hormones) that are part of the body’s response to danger (“flight or fight” e.g. they regulate heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, pupil size, change blood flow from skin to muscles among other functions). Learn more

Phimosis and Paraphimosis

Pathological phimosis results from small tears at the tip of the foreskin when it's forcibly retracted or from poor hygiene and infections which lead to scarring of the foreskin. Paraphimosis is a related condition where the foreskin of an uncircumcised or partially circumcised penis gets stuck behind the head of the penis. Learn more

Pilomatrixoma

A non-cancerous tumor that affects a hair follicle is known as pilomatrixoma. These usually affect the hair on the head or neck but can occur elsewhere on the body, as well. Learn more

Pilonidal Disease

Pilonidal disease is one or more skin openings between the top of the cheeks of the buttocks. A pilonidal sinus is a small tunnel in the skin which may fill with fluid (when it’s a pilonidal cyst it contains, hair, dirt and skin debris) or infected bloody secretions (when it’s called a pilonidal abscess). It’s more common in adult men (though can occur particularly in hairy adolescents). Learn more

Pneumothorax

The pleura are two membranes, (with minimal space between them - the pleura cavity, containing a small amount of lubricating fluid), that lie between the lung and the chest wall. A pneumothorax is air in the pleural cavity. Air leaks into the pleural space can occur suddenly or gradually and may be simple (without buildup of significant pressure but with some stable collapse of the lung) or complicated (from air continuing to leak into the pleural space causing increasing lung collapse -called a tension pneumothorax, with further chest problems). Learn more

Polycystic Kidney Disease

PKD is a kidney disorder where numerous cysts enlarge in both kidneys reducing the amount of normal kidney tissue and thereby the kidney’s ability to function normally, leading to kidney failure. Learn more

Polyposis

Polyposis refers to a group of diseases that are known for causing polyps in the stomach or other areas of the gastrointestinal tract. Polyps are clusters of cells that form on the lining of the GI tract that carry the risk of cancer over time and cause other problems. Learn more

Preauricular Pits

A preauricular pit is a small hole and tract/cyst under the skin of the face just in front of the ear. Learn more

Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

The bile ducts are channels that are responsible for carrying a digestive juice known as bile from the liver to the small intestine. In primary sclerosing cholangitis, the bile ducts narrow and harden due to inflammation and ultimately can cause serious liver damage. Learn more

Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis

Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis is one of many types of progressive liver diseases that ultimately lead to liver failure. Learn more

Ptosis

Ptosis is a drooping eyelid with the upper eyelid falling to a lower position than normal. Learn more

Pyloric Stenosis

When the valve is narrowed by thickening of the muscles that make up the pylorus, blocking the passage of food, the condition is known as pyloric stenosis or hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Learn more

Rhabdoid Tumor Predisposition Syndrome

Rhabdoid tumors are abnormal growths that frequently affect the brain, kidneys or spinal cord, among other parts of the body. Learn more

Saccular Cysts

The larynx is another term for the voice box in the throat. The saccule is a portion of the larynx that produces mucus to lubricate it. When cysts form in the saccule, they are known as saccular cysts. Learn more

Sacrococcygeal Teratoma

A sacrococcygeal teratoma is a tumor containing a number of different tissues (fat, bone, nerves etc.) that is present at birth in the tailbone (coccyx) of the newborn baby. Learn more

Sepsis

Sepsis is a complication that can occur in the body’s bloodstream as the result of an infection. Learn more

Severe Facial Injuries

Facial injuries involve the face and/or upper jaw and include injuries to the skin, facial bones, nose, sinuses, eye socket or teeth. Learn more

Teratoma

A teratoma is a fairly common congenital (develops before birth) type of solid tumor that contains normal looking tissues like hair, teeth and bone (and very rarely whole organs like, for example eyes). Learn more

Testicular Torsion

Each testis is connected to the penis by a spermatic cord which contains blood vessels, nerves, muscles and a tube to carry sperm to the penis. Testicular torsion is the medical term for when a testicle rotates and twists the spermatic cord cutting off its blood supply. Learn more

Testicular Tumors

Testicular tumors are growths on the testicle. They occur in infant boys < 2 years of age (when they are usually benign - non-cancerous and don't spread) and after boys enter puberty (when most are malignant; cancerous and can spread). Learn more

Tethered Spinal Cord

A tethered cord is held fixed or held taught by a band (usually at the end of the cord) in the spinal canal. Learn more

Thyroid Disorders

Please see Thyroid Nodules for further information.

Thyroid Nodules

A thyroid nodule or lump is a fairly rare unusual firm growth of cells that occur within the thyroid gland. While thyroid nodules are frequently non-cancerous in children. Learn more

Tracheal Stenosis

The trachea is another name for the windpipe that delivers air to and from the lungs. When the trachea becomes narrow and negatively impacts breathing, this is known as tracheal stenosis. Learn more

Tracheoesophageal Fistula

The trachea (windpipe) to the lungs and the esophagus to the stomach are tubes that are normally close to one another but not connected. When tracheoesophageal fistula is present, the two tubes are connected in one or more places, and openings between them can cause problems. Learn more

Tracheomalacia

When the walls of the trachea (windpipe) are weak or floppy, the result is tracheomalacia. This causes the windpipe to actually collapse as the person is breathing and make it difficult to draw a breath. Learn more

Umbilical Hernias

A hernia is a common abnormal bulge that is seen or felt when a organ or fatty tissue pushes through a weak spot or hole in muscle or connective tissue. Boys and girls are equally affected. Learn more

Undescended Testicles

Typically by the age of 9 months, an infant boy’s testicles will descend from inside the body into the scrotum. If this does not occur, it is known as undescended testicles. Learn more

Vallecular Cysts

Vallecular cysts are pockets of infection that develop at the base of the tongue. They are often present at birth but tend to grow worse over time. Learn more

Vascular Malformations

A vascular malformation is an abnormality where clusters of blood vessels develop during fetal development. Learn more

Vertical/Complete Vaginal Septum

A vertical, or complete vaginal septum, refers to a vagina which has a extra wall of tissue dividing the vagina into 2 separate cavities. Learn more

Vesicoureteral Reflux

Urine normally flows one way from the kidneys to the bladder via tubes called the ureters before exiting the body through the urethra. When urine flows backwards from bladder towards the kidneys the condition is called vesicoureteral reflux. Learn more