Conditions we Treat


Anotia is a rare congenital disorder in which the visible portion of the ear (external ear) is completely missing at birth. It can affect one or both ears. Learn more about Anotia.

Apert Syndrome

This condition is also called Acrocephalosyndactyly, which means a dome- shaped head with fusion of the fingers. Learn more about Apert Syndrome.


Arthrogryposis is a condition that impacts some babies at birth. The joints don’t move very much or might not move at all. This frequently impacts the arms and legs. Often the muscles responsible for moving the joints are thin, weak, or missing. This results in joint contractures (i.e., tight joints). Learn more about Arthrogryposis.

Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome

Learn more about Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome.

Bell's Palsy

Bell’s palsy is a sudden unexplained episode of weakness or paralysis of part of the face muscles, usually on one side, that can occur at any age. Learn more about Bell's Palsy.

Binder Syndrome

Binder syndrome is a congenital disorder characterized by a flat, underdeveloped midface and nose. The jaw might also be affected, and the face may appear imbalanced. Learn more about Binder Syndrome.


Birthmarks are areas of abnormal skin color in a variety of sizes, shapes and colors that are present at birth or appear within a few weeks of birth in about 10%-30% of babies. Learn more about Birthmarks.

Birth-related Brachial Plexus Injury - Shoulder Dystocia

Birth-related brachial plexus palsy refers to injury of the nerves that lead from the cervical (neck) spinal cord to the arm. These nerves can be injured during a difficult delivery. The result is weakness and/or loss of sensation in the affected arm. Learn more about Birth-related Brachial Plexus Injury - Shoulder Dystocia.

Burns of the Arm and Hand

Burns can be caused by sources of heat, such as stoves, ovens, or open flames, as well as other causes, such as chemical burns. Learn more about Burns of the Arm and Hand.


Camptodactyly refers to a flexion deformity of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fingers. It may occur in just one finger, usually the pinky finer, or multiple fingers. It may be present in both hands or just one hand. Learn more about Camptodactyly.

Capillary Malformations

A capillary malformation is a flat, sharply defined small or large pink, red or purple birthmark, consisting of small blood vessels that may be found anywhere on the body, but most frequently on the head/neck area. Learn more about Capillary Malformations.

Cerebrocostomandibular Syndrome

Cerebrocostomandibular syndrome is an extremely rare congenital disorder that impacts the jaw and mouth. Learn more about Cerebrocostomandibular Syndrome.


CHARGE syndrome is an acronym for a genetic disorder that typically causes the following abnormalities: coloboma, heart defects, atresia choanae, growth retardation, genital abnormalities and ear abnormalities. Learn more about CHARGE.

Cleft Hand

A cleft hand is a hand deformity that is present at birth. Also known as ectrodactyly, it involves missing fingers and, sometimes, a V-shaped opening in the hand, among other abnormalities. Learn more about Cleft Hand.

Cleft Lip and/or Palate

A cleft lip and/or palate is characterized by the presence of a gap (split) in the lip and/or palate seen at birth when the tissues of the lip and/or palate don't come together at all, or come together only part of the way. Learn more about Cleft Lip and/or Palate.


Clinodactyly refers to curvature of a finger in the plane of the palm. The condition most commonly affects the pinky finger. Learn more about Clinodactyly.

Complex Cutis Aplasia

Complex cutis aplasia is a disorder where skin is missing from a portion of the scalp in one or more areas. It occurs at birth in rare cases in some infants. Learn more about Complex Cutis Aplasia.

Congenital Hand Malformation

Any problem with the hands that develops in a fetus while it’s still in the uterus is known as a congenital hand malformation. Learn more about Congenital Hand Malformation.

Congenital Radioulnar Synostosis - Congenital Radial Head Dislocation

Congenital radioulnar synostosis is a condition in which there is an abnormal bony connection between the radius and the ulna, two forearm bones. A similar condition, congenital radial head dislocation, refers to dislocation of the radial head from the proximal radioulnar joint. Learn more about Congenital Radioulnar Synostosis - Congenital Radial Head Dislocation.

Craniofacial Abnormalities

Craniofacial is a broad medical term that describes abnormalities of the bones of the skull and face. Learn more about Craniofacial Abnormalities.

Crouzon Syndrome

Crouzon syndrome is a rare disorder that is present at birth. It is characterized by the seams between a baby’s soft skull bones closing early, which causes the face and eye sockets to develop incorrectly. Learn more about Crouzon Syndrome.


Cryptotia is an ear deformity babies are born with. Specifically, the upper part of the external ear is buried beneath the scalp skin. This makes wearing glasses challenging. Learn more about Cryptotia.

Deformational Plagiocephaly

Deformational plagiocephaly refers to a defect in which the head is misshapen and often flat in one area due to pressure put on that area of the head. Learn more about Deformational Plagiocephaly.

Ear Deformities at Birth

Ear Hemangiomas

Ear hemangiomas are non-cancerous, benign tumors that are either present on the ear at birth or develop shortly after birth. They have a red or purple color and can range in size. Some can cause ear deformities. Learn more about Ear Hemangiomas.

Epidermolysis Bullosa

Epidermolysis bullosa refers to a condition in which the skin is very fragile and blisters easily. It often appears early in life, though it can first appear during the teenage years or early adulthood. Learn more about Epidermolysis Bullosa.

Eye Injuries and Eye Socket Fracture

Learn more about Eye Injuries and Eye Socket Fracture.

Ganglion Cyst

A ganglion cyst is a lump that frequently develops near joints or tendons of the wrist or hand. The contents of the cyst resemble joint fluid. The cyst can cause pain or limited mobility. Learn more about Ganglion Cyst.

Hand Injuries

Hand injuries can vary widely from problems that impact the wrists, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, to arthritis to accidents that result in fractures or dislocations. Learn more about Hand Injuries.

Hand Spasticity

Upper extremity spasticity refers to increased muscle tone and hyperactive reflexes in the arm Learn more about Hand Spasticity.

Hemangiomas of Infancy

Hemangiomas of Infancy are the most common vascular tumors in infants. Learn more about Hemangiomas of Infancy.

Hemifacial Microsomia

​If a baby is born with the tissue on one side of the face underdeveloped, this is known as hemifacial microsomia. Learn more about Hemifacial Microsomia.

Hypoplastic Digits

Hypoplastic digits is a rare condition sometimes present at birth in which the fingers are poorly formed or absent. Learn more about Hypoplastic Digits.

Jersey Finger

The term jersey finger refers to an injury in which the flexor tendon tears from forceful extension of the finger while it is being flexed. The term is derived from rugby players who sometimes suffer from this injury while tackling players by the “jersey”. Other injury mechanisms are sometimes seen, including catching the finger on the edge of a basketball rim while dunking. Learn more about Jersey Finger.

Linear Scleroderma

While there are many medical conditions that can present with tightening and thickening of the skin, the term “Scleroderma” (hard skin) is usually used to describe a rare autoimmune disease (where the body’s normal defense mechanisms against bacteria and viruses attacks its own tissues and organs) that causes an increased production of dense, tough, hard, scar-like tissue to replace normal tissue. Learn more about Linear Scleroderma.


When a disorder of the body’s lymphatic system causes a cyst or lesion to grow somewhere on the body, this is known as lymphangioma. Learn more about Lymphangioma.


Macrodactyly is marked by the presence of an enlarged finger or toe on a newborn. Sometimes this condition coexists with syndactyly, in which fingers or toes are fused. What Causes Macrodactyly? Macrodactyly is a genetic disorder and tends to run in families. Treatment of Macrodactyly Macrodactyly treatment depends on the extent of the condition. Surgery can often improve the appearance and function of the affected limb. The highly trained team at the Nicklaus Children's Hospital Hand and Extremity Program can support families in identifying the best treatment options. Learn more about Macrodactyly.



Microtia is a birth defect that affects the ear. When microtia is present, one of the ears is significantly smaller than the other. Learn more about Microtia.

Mirror Hand

Mirror hand is a very rare congenital difference. In most cases, there is mirrored symmetry of the hand with a central digit and 3 digits on either side and no thumb. Learn more about Mirror Hand.

Moebius Syndrome

Moebius Syndrome is a rare condition which primarily affects the 6th and 7th cranial nerves, leaving those with the condition unable to move their faces (they can’t smile, frown, suck, grimace or blink their eyes) and unable to move their eyes laterally. Learn more about Moebius Syndrome.

Nerve Laceration

The signals carried by the nerves cannot cross the gaps caused by lacerations. Nerve signals are also affected by injured, stretched or compressed nerves. Learn more about Nerve Laceration.

Obstetrical Brachial Plexus Palsy/Injury

Brachial plexus birth injury refers to damage to the brachial plexus that occurs at birth, and may be related to a difficult labor and delivery. Learn more about Obstetrical Brachial Plexus Palsy/Injury.


Oligodactyly is the presence of fewer than five fingers or toes on the hand or foot. Learn more about Oligodactyly.

Palatal Tumors

The palate is another word for the roof of the mouth. When abnormal growths of cells known as tumors impact the palate, these are commonly known as palatal tumors. Learn more about Palatal Tumors.

Peripheral Nerve Injuries

Please see Brachial Plexus Injuries for further information.

Pfeiffer Syndrome

Pfeiffer syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by early fusion of the bones of the skull (craniosynostosis). This in turn leads to abnormalities of the head and face. Learn more about Pfeiffer Syndrome.

Pierre Robin Sequence

Common clinical characteristics of Pierre Robin Sequence are micrognathia (small lower jaw) or retrognathia (set back lower jaw), glossoptosis (displacement of the tongue to the back of the throat), and airway obstruction leading to difficulty with breathing. Learn more about Pierre Robin Sequence.


It is a condition characterized by a flattening of the skull on one side or on the back of the head. Learn more about Plagiocephaly.

Plexiform Neurofibroma

Plexiform neurofibromas are a rare, benign (non-cancerous) form of tumor that can occur almost anywhere in the body, such as the face, arm, back, chest, legs and elsewhere. Learn more about Plexiform Neurofibroma.

Poland Syndrome

Poland syndrome is a rare condition that is characterized by underdeveloped or missing muscles that can cause anomalies in the upper body. Learn more about Poland Syndrome.


Polydactyly refers to a condition in which a child is born with extra fingers or toes. Learn more about Polydactyly.

Protruding Ears

If the ears stick out 2 centimeters from the side of the head or more, they are known as protruding ears. They usually don’t cause any other symptoms other than the unusual physical appearance of the ears. Learn more about Protruding Ears.

Radial Club Deformity

Radial club deformity is a condition in which a child’s wrist is bent in the direction of the thumb. It is present at birth and may be present in both arms. Learn more about Radial Club Deformity.

Radial Dysplasia

Please see Radial Club Deformity for further information.

Radius Hypoplasia

Please see Radial Club Deformity for further information.

Scaphoid Fracture

The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured bone in the wrist. It is positioned on the proximal and radial side of the wrist, just proximal to the base of the thumb. Learn more about Scaphoid Fracture.

Shoulder Dystocia

Please see Brachial Plexus Palsy Injury for further information.

Stahl's Ear

Stahl’s ear refers to an ear that is pointy and has an extra fold of cartilage in the middle portion. It is a defect that babies are born with. Learn more about Stahl's Ear.


Symbrachydactly is a hand abnormality present at birth that affects only a single limb. Learn more about Symbrachydactyly.


Syndactyly is a condition in which a baby's fingers or toes do not fully separate during pregnancy. Learn more about Syndactyly.

Tendon Laceration

Tendon lacerations are an injury to the tendon that most commonly impacts the flexor and extensor tendons of the hand. Learn more about Tendon Laceration.

Thumb Hypoplasia and Aplasia

Thumb hypoplasia and aplasia are birth defects that affect the thumb. Thumb hypoplasia means that the thumb is typically underdeveloped and small. With thumb aplasia, the thumb is missing altogether. Learn more about Thumb Hypoplasia and Aplasia.

Treacher Collins

Treacher Collins is a genetic disorder that impacts how the face develops. Specifically, it can cause abnormal development of the jaws, ears, eyelids and cheekbones. Learn more about Treacher Collins.

Trigger Finger/Thumb

Trigger finger or trigger thumb is a common disorder in which a finger becomes locked in a flexed position and it catches or snaps when put into extension. Learn more about Trigger Finger/Thumb.

Ulnar Club Hand

Ulnar club hand is a condition in which a child’s wrist is bent in the direction of the pinky finger. It’s a congenital defect that is present at birth. Learn more about Ulnar Club Hand.

Vascular Malformation in Children

Wrist/Hand Fracture

The hand has a total of 19 small bones that create the framework for a functioning hand. The wrist is made up of 8 small bones. The forearm is composed of two long bones, known as the ulna and radius. While any of these bones may fracture, some bone are more commonly fractured than others. The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured bone in the wrist. Fractures of the radius are also common. Learn more about Wrist/Hand Fracture.