Dermatology: Skin Conditions we Treat in Children

The Division of Pediatric Dermatology at Nicklaus Children's has consistently offered the most innovative treatments for a full range of dermatologic conditions.


An abrasion is the medical term for a minor superficial scrape of the skin. Learn more


Acne is a very common skin problem of children and teenagers where the oil of the glands around the base of a hair follicle can't reach the surface of the skin because the pores that allow it to reach the surface of the skin are blocked by dead skin and oils. Learn more


Angioedema is another term for swelling. Learn more


Angiokeratomas are small dark red to purple raised spots and come in several types. They may also have a rough scaly surface. Learn more

Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM)

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are defects of the circulatory system that are thought to arise during embryonic or fetal development or soon after birth. Learn more


Ataxia telangectasia (A-T) is a rare, degenerative disorder affecting the part of the brain that controls motor skills, balance, and speech. Learn more

Atopic Dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis is a relapsing, often chronic skin condition characterized by mild to severe, itchiness, redness, skin thickening, dry skin and flaking. Learn more

Atypical (Dysplastic) Nevi

Melanocytic, dysplastic, or atypical nevi are the scientific terms to describe an atypical, or unusual-looking, overwhelmingly benign mole, which are very common in children. Learn more

Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba Syndrome

Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS) is a rare condition with hamartomatous polyps of the small and large intestines. Learn more

Benign Skin Growths

Any marks, bumps, moles, lumps, spots, skin tags, or other imperfections on the skin that are not cancerous are known as benign skin growths. Learn more


Birthmarks are areas of abnormal skin color in a variety of sizes, shapes, and colors that are present at birth or appear within a few weeks of birth in about 10%-30% of babies. Learn more

Capillary Malformations

A capillary malformation is a flat, sharply defined small or large pink, red or purple birthmark, consisting of small blood vessels that may be found anywhere on the body, but most frequently on the head/neck area. Learn more


Cellulitis is a rapidly spreading and potentially serious bacterial skin infection. It appears as redness and swelling of the infected area and the skin is usually tender and hot to the touch. Learn more

Cherry Angiomas

A cherry angioma is a small to large, fairly common, benign, bright cherry red or purple, smooth or raised area, of clusters of tiny blood vessels on the skin. Learn more


Chickenpox is a highly contagious viral infection that causes itchy spots in children who haven’t had the disease or been vaccinated against it. Learn more

CLOVES Syndrome

CLOVES syndrome is a very rare congenital disorder that is characterized by the presence of several problems together. Learn more

Cobb Syndrome

​Cobb syndrome is a rare, non-inherited disorder characterized by visible skin lesions with underlying spinal angiomas or arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Learn more

Cold Sores

Cold sores are common, small painful blisters that usually appear on or around the lips or mouth and are frequently called "fever blisters." Learn more

Congenital Nevi

Congenital nevi is the term for a single small to medium sized, flat, or raised dark mole that develops from proliferation of pigmented cells on or in the skin of a baby. Learn more

Contact Dermatitis

Contact dermatitis is a skin rash that occurs due to contact with something that irritated inflammatory response in the skin. Learn more

Cutis Marmorta Telangiectatica Congentia (CMTC)

Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita (CMTC) is an uncommonly reported, sporadic, congenital cutaneous disorder. It often reported in association with a variety of other congenital anomalies and affects the skin. Learn more


A cyst is a benign closed collection of tissue that is filled with fluid, pus, or other material. Learn more

Dermoid Cyst

Dermoid cysts in infants and children are typically embryologic remnants where tissue that was supposed to be on the outer layer of the baby develops under the skin. Learn more

Diaper Rash

Diaper rash is a very common inflammatory skin problem in infants. It refers to the red and irritated skin on your baby’s bottom beneath the diaper. Learn more


Eczema is a chronic skin condition, characterized by one or more areas, of itchy, red, dry thickened skin patches. Learn more

Epidermal Nevi

Epidermal nevi are abnormal benign, or non-cancerous, large patches featuring plaques of flat or slightly raised brown skin or nodules/domes that can be smooth or rough and are sometimes found on the skin of the face, the torso, or arms. Learn more

Epidermolysis Bullosa

Epidermolysis bullosa refers to a condition in which the skin is very fragile and blisters easily. It often appears early in life, though it can first appear during the teenage years or early adulthood. Learn more

Folliculitis, Boils, and Carbuncles

Folliculitis, boils and carbuncles are a group of related conditions that cause lesions on the skin and are related to the infection of hair follicles. Learn more


Glomus bodies are a blood component that help regulate the temperature of the skin. If glomus bodies collect together, they form painful clusters that are visible beneath the skin known as glomangiomas. Learn more

Glomus Tumor

A glomus tumor or glomangioma is a rare, benign growth of blood vessels which can develop in both adults and children. Learn more

Gorham Syndrome

Gorham syndrome is a rare condition involving gradual bone loss that can affect one or more bones. Learn more

Hemangiomas of Infancy

Hemangiomas of infancy are the most common vascular tumors in infants. Learn more


A hemangiopericytoma is a very rare soft tissue mass due to overgrowth of capillaries that is almost always benign. Learn more


These are itchy red bumps on the skin that look like mosquito bites. They come and go and do not leave any mark behind. Learn more


Hyperhidrosis is the medical term for excessive sweating. Learn more

Hypertrophic/Keloid Scars

A hypertrophic scar may develop as part of the skin's response to injury and is a reddish, itchy, firm, normally raised, thicker-than-usual form of scar that’s similar in color and texture to normal skin. Learn more


Impetigo is a common, contagious bacterial skin infection that mostly occurs in infants and young children. Learn more

Infantile/Ulcerated Cavernous Hemangiomas

The term hemangioma refers to a common collection of blood vessels on or under the skin that usually develops in babies. Learn more

Juvenile Dermatomyositis

Juvenile dermatomyositis is an autoimmune disorder in which the body attacks its own tissues and cells. Specifically, JDM impacts the muscles and skin in children. Learn more

Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma

Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma is a rare, rapidly growing mass of blood vessels that may be present at birth or develop during infancy. Learn more

Kasabach-Merrit Phenomenon

Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (KMS) is also known as “hemangiomas with thrombocytopenia.” It is a combination of hemangioma, thrombocytopenia, and coagulopathy. Learn more


Please see Hypertrophic/Keloid Scars for further information.

Klippel-Trenaunay and Parkes-Weber Syndrome

This is a rare congenital medical condition of abnormal blood and lymph vessel formation, cutaneous capillary malformation, and skeletal or soft tissue hypertrophy. Learn more


There are three different kinds of lice which live in human hair of the head, pubic area, or on the body. Learn more

Linear Scleroderma

Scleroderma (hard skin) usually describes a rare autoimmune disease that causes an increased production of dense, tough, hard, scar-like tissue to replace normal tissue. Learn more

Lymphatic Malformation

A lymphatic malformation is a mass in the head or neck that results from an abnormal formation of lymphatic vessels. Learn more

Maffucci syndrome

​Maffucci syndrome is a rare genetic disorder of unknown cause characterized by benign enlargements of cartilage, bone deformities, and dark, irregularly shaped hemangiomas. Learn more


Melanocytes are the cells in the body’s skin that produce melanin. Melanin is the pigment that gives skin its color. When cancer develops in the melanocytes, it is known as melanoma. Learn more

Molluscum Contagiosum

Molluscum contagiosum is a mild non-malignant viral infection of the skin, spread by direct person-to-person contact or by contact with contaminated objects. Learn more

Mucous Cyst

A mucous cysts gets its name because it often results from mucus clogging a gland and leading to the formation of the cyst. Learn more


A NICH or non-involuting congenital hemangioma is a rare growth of blood vessels that is completely formed at birth. Learn more

PELVIS Syndrome

PELVIS syndrome is used for the association of lumbosacral or genital area hemangiomas Learn more


Perichondritis is an infection of the perichondrium and a common site for an infection is the outer soft part of the ear. Learn more

PHACE Syndrome

PHACE syndrome is a term used to describe a special type of hemangioma that usually covers a segmental area of the body. Learn more

Pilonidal Disease

Pilonidal disease is one or more skin openings between the top of the cheeks of the buttocks. A pilonidal sinus is a small tunnel in the skin which may fill with fluid (when it’s a pilonidal cyst it contains, hair, dirt and skin debris) or infected bloody secretions (when it’s called a pilonidal abscess). It’s more common in adult men (though can occur particularly in hairy adolescents). Learn more

Pityriasis Rosea

Pityriasis rosea is a medical condition that causes red rashes on the skin. It’s fairly common and usually doesn’t lead to severe complications beyond the presence of the rash. Learn more

Poison Ivy and Poison Oak

Poison ivy and poison oak are common plants that can cause an allergic skin rash. Learn more

Port Wine Stain (PWS) Birthmarks

A port wine stain or PWS is one of the more common birthmarks related to blood vessel growth. Learn more

Proteus Syndrome

Proteus syndrome is a congenital disorder that causes an overgrowth of tissue. Learn more


Psoriasis is characterized by extra skin cells building up rapidly on the surface of the skin giving rise to the red, raised, thickened silvery scale patches of skin that usually appear on the scalp, knees, elbows but can appear anywhere on the body. Learn more

Pyogenic Granuloma

Pyogenic granuloma is a relatively common skin growth that presents as a shiny red mass. Learn more

Raynaud Phenomenon

Raynaud phenomenon refers to abnormal spasms that decrease blood flow to certain areas (usually hands and feet) as a reaction to cold exposure or emotional stress. Learn more


A RICH or rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma is a rare growth of blood vessels that is completely formed at birth. Learn more


A ringworm infection is a very infectious and common skin rash presenting as one or more ring-shaped pink/red patches, seen anywhere on the body. It is caused by a fungus. Learn more

Salmon Patch

Salmon patches, often called stork bites or angel kisses, are common birthmarks seen in almost one-third of infants. Learn more


Scleroderma is a rare autoimmune disease where normal skin is replaced by dense thick scar like tissue. Learn more

Seborrheic Dermatitis

Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the skin that comes and goes and causes a greasy, white, crusty, scaly red rash that usually affects the scalp. Learn more

Skin Cancer

Skin cancer is a very rare cancer in children, which, when present, results from skin cells growing without restraint. Learn more

Skin Infections

Infections of the skin can occur in a variety of different forms. Most of them present with some sort of rash, blemish, bump, or nodule, that is present on the skin, though other symptoms can also be present. Learn more

Skin Pigment Disorders

Skin pigment disorders include Albinism, Melasma, loss of skin color from skin damage, and Vitiligo. Learn more

Spider Angiomas

Spider angioma/s are one or more common benign abnormal clusters of blood vessels that are often visible on the skin of the face, neck, upper arms, hands, fingers and trunk. Learn more

Sturge-Weber Syndrome (SWS)

This is a rare congenital disorder associated with a port-wine stain birthmark on the face, glaucoma, seizures, intellectual disabilities, and arteriovenous malformations of the brain. Learn more


Sunburn is painful, red and hot skin that results from overexposure to sunlight. Sunburn can not only be painful in the short term, but it can increase the risk of wrinkles, rough spots and skin cancer over time. Learn more


Telangiectasias is a common single or multiple vascular abnormality found on the skin of children and adults from widened small veins which form little red lines or patterns on the skin, or look like a red spider with small vessels surrounding a red center. Learn more

Tinea Versicolor

Tinea versicolor is a yeast infection of the skin that causes red spots to appear. Though it’s not harmful, it can cause unwanted physical symptoms. Learn more

Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

Toxic epidermal necrolysis is a dangerous life-threatening skin disorder characterized by the skin blistering and sloughing off in large pieces, leading to large raw exposed areas that are prone to infection. Learn more

Tufted Angioma

A tufted angioma is a rare, benign growth of blood vessels that develops during infancy and childhood with most appearing before the age of five. Learn more

Vascular Anomalies

Vascular anomalies is a broad term that refers to blood vessels or lymphatic vessels that grow or form in unusual way. Many birthmarks are due to vascular anomalies, but they can occur for other reasons, as well. Learn more

Vascular Malformations

A vascular malformation is an abnormality where clusters of blood vessels develop during fetal development. Learn more

Venous Malformation

​Venous malformations are benign birthmarks due to malformed and stretched out veins. Learn more


Vitiligo is a skin condition that is characterized by white patches of skin around the body. Learn more


Warts are round noncancerous, rough or smooth skin growths that can appear on almost any part of the body. Learn more