Conditions We Treat
Abdominal Pain (chronic and recurrent)
Chronic and recurrent abdominal pain in children usually refers to the 10-15% of children who complain of recurrent pain in the abdomen for which no specific cause can be found.
Learn more about Abdominal Pain (chronic and recurrent).
Abdominal Wall Abnormalities
When an infant has a birth defect that involves an opening in the abdomen, this is known as an abdominal wall abnormality or abdominal wall defect.
Learn more about Abdominal Wall Abnormalities.
When food does not move easily from the esophagus into the stomach, one potential cause of this situation is a medical condition known as achalasia. The lower esophageal sphincter, which is a ring between the esophagus and stomach, does not relax when achalasia is present, which leads to the condition.
Learn more about Achalasia.
Acute Liver Failure
Acute liver failure is a rare condition in which the liver stops working quite rapidly, and often with no other previous liver problems being present.
Learn more about Acute Liver Failure.
Alagille syndrome is a genetic disorder. It causes problems throughout the body, but one of the common signs is liver damage due to problems with the liver’s bile ducts. Instead of transporting bile away from the liver to other parts of the body, these problems cause bile to build up in the liver and damage it.
Learn more about Alagille Syndrome.
Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency
Alpha-1 antitrypsin is a protein produced by the liver. It plays a role in protecting the lungs. When the body doesn’t make enough of it, or it can’t travel properly from the liver to the lungs, the disease is known as alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.
Learn more about Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.
Please see Imperforated Anus for further information.
Anorexia is a severe debilitating eating disorder that occurs most frequently in girls that is characterized by a distorted view of their body that leads them to believe they're overweight and need to restrict how much they eat, over exercise, and/or perform other behaviors that prevents them from gaining weight, almost to starvation.
Learn more about Anorexia Nervosa.
The appendix is a finger-like blind-ended tube that arises at the junction of the small and large intestines in the abdomen. Appendicitis is a very common acute infection/inflammation of the appendix usually occurring in children between the ages of 10-19 years.
Learn more about Appendicitis.
When excess fluid accumulates in the abdomen, specifically in the area between the abdominal lining and the organs in the abdomen, this is known as ascites. When the fluid buildup contains chyle (a milky-type fluid that contains lymphatic fluid and fat), this form of ascites is known as chylous ascites.
Learn more about Ascites.
Atresia is a medical term that means that a body part that is tubular in nature does not have a normal opening, or lacks the ability to allow material to pass through it.
Learn more about Atresia.
An autoimmune disease occurs when the body’s immune system (the body's natural defense system against bacteria, viruses and other foreign invaders) mistakenly attacks its own organs and tissues.
Learn more about Autoimmune Diseases.
An autoimmune disorder refers to a medical condition in which the immune system mistakenly attacks the body’s own organs and tissues, thinking they are a foreign invader. Autoimmune enteropathy occurs when the immune system attacks the intestines, which leads to frequent diarrhea and other nutritional problems in children.
Learn more about Autoimmune Enteropathy.
An autoimmune disorder refers to a medical condition in which the immune system mistakenly attacks the body’s own organs and tissues, thinking they are a foreign invader. Autoimmune hepatitis occurs when the immune system attacks the liver, which leads to liver damage and inflammation.
Learn more about Autoimmune Hepatitis.
Bile Acid Synthesis Defects
Bile acids are chemicals in the liver that play several important roles in the body, including helping with the breakdown of fat and removing cholesterol from the body. When the body has trouble producing bile acid, this is known as a bile acid synthesis defect.
Learn more about Bile Acid Synthesis Defects.
The biliary system refers to the ducts and channels that allow the fluid produced in the liver ( bile ) to drain into the intestines
Learn more about Biliary Artresia.
Binge Eating Disorder
Binge eating is a type of eating disorder where abnormally large amounts of food are eaten in a single sitting.
Learn more about Binge Eating Disorder.
Bulimia is a type of eating disorder where children/adolescents will have episodes of uncontrollable overeating.
Learn more about Bulimia.
When people’s bodies are unable to absorb sugars, starches and other carbohydrates, this condition is known as carbohydrate malabsorption. It can lead to a number of complications.
Learn more about Carbohydrate Malabsorption.
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder. This means that the body’s own immune system attacks itself as if it were a foreign invader.
Learn more about Celiac Disease.
If a duct draining bile from the liver is dilated or shows an out-pouching in a particular segment, this is called a choledochal cyst.
Learn more about Choledochal Cysts.
Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction
In order for food to make its way through the digestive tract, it relies on a process of involuntary muscle contractions known as peristalsis. When peristalsis doesn’t work properly due to nerve or muscle problems, this is known as chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.
Learn more about Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction.
Cirrhosis of the Liver
Cirrhosis is a fancy term for scarring of the liver. It can occur due to alcohol abuse, hepatitis, and other reasons.
Learn more about Cirrhosis of the Liver.
Cloaca Anomaly is a major malformation of the intestinal genital and urinary tracts in females.
Learn more about Cloaca Anomaly.
Cloacal exstrophy is a birth defect that is linked to malformations of the urinary bladder, portions of the rectum and intestines, vaginal structures in females, and pelvis.
Learn more about Cloacal Exstrophy.
Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia
The diaphragm is the muscular boundary that helps separate the contents of the chest from those of the abdomen. When there’s a hole within the diaphragm of a growing fetus while it’s in the mother’s womb, this is known as a congenital diaphragmatic hernia, or CDH.
Learn more about Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia.
Congenital Hepatic Fibrosis
Congenital hepatic fibrosis is a disease that affects the liver. Specifically, it’s known for causing structural problems with the bile ducts and blood vessels of the liver that are present at birth.
Learn more about Congenital Hepatic Fibrosis.
Congenital Hepatitis B
Congenital hepatitis B is a viral infection of a baby’s liver which occurs when a pregnant women infected with HBV passes the virus onto her unborn infant.
Learn more about Congenital Hepatitis B.
Constipation in a common problem in children and is described as a condition where the child has infrequent ( less than 2-3 or less stools a week ), or hard dry and small bowel movements that are difficult to pass and are painful.
Learn more about Constipation.
Crohn’s disease is a chronic type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes the intestine anywhere from mouth to anus to become inflamed, and/or ulcerated, causing it to lose its ability to absorb digested foods.
Learn more about Crohn's Disease.
Cyclic vomiting is a disorder in which a person has periods of vomiting that can last anywhere from a few hours to several days.
Learn more about Cyclic Vomiting.
Malabsorption is the failure to digest or absorb nutrients from eaten food.
Learn more about Diarrhea-Malabsorption.
Drug-induced Liver Disease
If use on over-the-counter medications, prescriptions medications, herbs and supplements or illegal drugs ultimately leads an individual to develop liver problems, this is known as drug-induced liver disease.
Learn more about Drug-induced Liver Disease.
Dysphagia means difficulty with feeding and/or swallowing from problems with using the mouth/lips, tongue or throat.
Learn more about Dysphagia.
Please see Fecal Incontinence for further information.
An enteric duplication is the presence of an abnormal cyst or structure in the digestive tract that is contained within the digestive tract and resembles the surrounding organs.
Learn more about Enteric duplication.
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a condition related to food ingestion or inhaled allergens. It is characterized by an isolated inflammation of the esophagus by a specific white blood cell called the eosinophil.
Learn more about Eosinophilic Esophagitis.
When a fetus’s esophagus, the tube that carries food to the stomach, does not develop correctly, the defect is known as esophageal atresia.
Learn more about Esophageal Atresia.
When the esophagus becomes inflamed, it’s known as esophagitis.
Learn more about Esophagitis.
Failure to thrive
If an infant or child is not maintaining or gaining weight at a normal rate, because of inadequate calorie intake, poor food absorption or increased caloric expenditure, the condition is known as failure to thrive.
Learn more about Failure to thrive.
Familial Adenomatous Polyposis
Familial adenomatous polyposis is a genetic disorder that causes polyps to begin to develop in the colon and rectum over time. Eventually, these polyps can cause colon cancer.
Learn more about Familial Adenomatous Polyposis.
Pancreatitis is a disease that affects the pancreas, causing pain and other symptoms. Familial pancreatitis refers to pancreatitis that occurs in a family with a rate that is greater than would be expected by chance alone.
Learn more about Familial Pancreatitis.
Many problems that arise with the liver over time are related to alcohol abuse. In the absence of alcohol abuse, when more than 5 percent of a person’s liver mass develops increased fat accumulation, this is known as fatty liver disease.
Learn more about Fatty Liver.
When a child does not have control over their bowel movements (past the age of toilet training- at least 4 years of age), and leaks solid or liquid (or mucous) stool from the rectum at unexpected times, it is known as fecal incontinence.
Learn more about Fecal Incontinence.
Feeding Disorders or Difficulties
The terms feeding disorders or feeding difficulties are frequently used to refer to infants and children who have problems with eating enough and/or an appropriate variety of foods.
Learn more about Feeding Disorders or Difficulties.
Food allergies are when a person develops allergy antibodies (IgE antibodies) to a protein in a food, and when exposed to this protein it causes an allergic reaction.
Learn more about Food Allergies.
If a person becomes ill after consuming food, this is known as food poisoning. Some form of germ is usually the culprit of the illness, and the symptoms can range from mild to severe.
Learn more about Food Poisoning.
Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome occurs in a small percentage of infants after ingestion of an offending food, causing repetitive vomiting sometimes with diarrhea leading to dehydration and possibly shock.
Learn more about Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome.
Functional Abdominal Pain
Many forms of abdominal pain are related to problems with the digestive function of the intestinal tract; inflammation within the lining of the intestinal tract; or blockages or other abnormalities in the structure of the intestinal tract or its associated organs.
Learn more about Functional Abdominal Pain.
Constipation is a common symptom that refers to the inability or difficulty to produce a bowel movement. When idiopathic constipation is present, that simply means that the cause of constipation is unknown. In some cases, the constipation can be so severe that it causes dangerous symptoms.
Learn more about Functional Constipation.
The gallbladder is a pouch located beneath the liver that stores bile before sending it along to the small intestine. Any medical condition that impacts the gallbladder can be lumped into the category of “gallbladder disease”.
Learn more about Gallbladder Disease.
When the lining of the stomach becomes inflamed, this condition is known as gastritis.
Learn more about Gastritis.
Gastroenteritis refers to an inflammation of the intestinal lining that leads to a number of digestive-related and other symptoms.
Learn more about Gastroenteritis.
Gastroesophageal Reflux (GE Reflux)
When digestive acids from the stomach back up or reflux back up the food pipe ( esophagus ) causing heartburn ( acid reflux ) it's called gastroesophageal reflux.
Learn more about Gastroesophageal Reflux (GE Reflux).
When the gastrointestinal tract, most often the intestine, is infected by a parasite, this is often referred to as gastrointestinal parasites. If not treated some parasites may linger for many years and cause long term problems
Learn more about Gastrointestinal Parasites.
Gastrointestinal polyposis refers to a group of diseases that are known for causing polyps in the stomach, colon, or other areas of the gastrointestinal tract. Polyps are abnormal growths that form on the lining of the GI tract.
Learn more about Gastrointestinal Polyposis.
Gastroparesis occurs if the muscles and/or nerves of the stomach do not move food properly, causing the stomach to take too long to empty.
Learn more about Gastroparesis.
Gastroschisis and Omphalocele
Gastroschisis and omphalocele are both part of a relatively uncommon group of birth defects that involve an opening or hole in the abdominal wall, frequently on the right side of the belly button.
Learn more about Gastroschisis and Omphalocele.
Genetic/Metabolic Diseases of the Liver
Certain disorders that children are born with can make it difficult for the liver to process certain nutrients, such as fats, proteins or carbohydrates. This group of disorders is known as genetic/metabolic diseases of the liver.
Learn more about Genetic/Metabolic Diseases of the Liver.
Any internal bleeding that originates anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract is known as GI bleeding.
Learn more about GI Bleeding.
Giardia and other GI Infections
A wide variety of highly contagious infectious agents can infect the gastrointestinal tract. Giardia, which is a parasite, is one of the more common.
Learn more about Giardia and other GI Infections.
Helicobacter pylori is a spiral shaped, motile bacterium that infects the stomach, and duodenum sometimes causing illness.
Learn more about Helicobacter Pylori.
A hernia is the extension of a portion of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening in the wall that normally contains it.
Learn more about Hernia.
Hirschsprung's disease describes a congenital condition (happens before birth) where nerve cells in the wall of the large bowel (colon) that normally develop during intrauterine development are missing.
Learn more about Hirschsprung's Disease.
If a baby is born without an anus (the opening at the end of the digestive tract), then this birth defect is known as an imperforated anus.
Learn more about Imperforated Anus.
Inborn Errors of Metabolism
When a baby has trouble digesting certain foods and turning them into energy, it
could be due to inborn errors of metabolism.
Learn more about Inborn Errors of Metabolism.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are several related illnesses that cause chronic inflammation of the gut with swelling and damage of the bowel lining.
Learn more about Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Intestinal Atresia and Stenosis
Intestinal atresia, a type of birth defect, refers to a complete block in an area of the intestines of a baby. It occurs when the intestines aren’t formed properly.
Learn more about Intestinal Atresia and Stenosis.
The actions of the muscles and nerves in the gastrointestinal tract that mix and move food (muscle contraction and relaxation) along is the known as motility. When something goes wrong with this action in the muscles or in the nerves of the intestines, this is referred to as intestinal dysmotility.
Learn more about Intestinal Dysmotility.
Intestinal Malrotation and Volvulus
Intestinal malrotation is a defect that is present at birth. It occurs when the intestines do not rotate into the proper position as they are developing in the unborn fetus. One common complication of intestinal malrotation is known as volvulus, which is when the intestine twists in such a manner that it cuts off its own blood supply.
Learn more about Intestinal Malrotation and Volvulus.
An intra-abdominal cyst is a growth or mass that’s found inside the abdomen that should not be there. It is a birth defect. In some cases, the growth doesn’t cause any further problems, but in other cases it can lead to complications.
Learn more about Intra-abdominal cyst.
Intractable Abdominal Pain
Intractable abdominal pain is abdominal pain that arises in the absence of a structural blockage or inflammation in the intestinal tract, and which bears no or only occasional relationship to bodily processes such as eating, stooling, or menstrual periods. Pain can vary in both frequency and severity.
Learn more about Intractable Abdominal Pain.
When part of the intestine folds in on itself and blocks the flow of materials through the intestine, this condition is known as intussusception. It can have potentially serious consequences.
Learn more about Intussusception.
Atresia is a medical term that means the opening within the hollow of an organ (in this case the intestine) is blocked. Jejunal atresia arise when this portion of the intestine (the jejunum) fails to develop properly. In one form of jejunal atresia, this portion of the bowel wraps around an artery that supplies blood to the colon, giving the appearance of an apple peel. Jejunal atresia is a defect that is present at birth.
Learn more about Jejunal Atresia.
Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome
Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a disease that is known for causing polyps different areas of the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly the colon. Polyps are clusters of cells that form on the lining of the GI tract.
Learn more about Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome.
Without the enzyme, lactose cannot be absorbed and the condition is known as lactose intolerance because it causes children to have uncomfortable gut symptoms.
Learn more about Lactose Intolerance.
When individuals are not getting the necessary nutrients and calories from the diet that they need for daily functioning and growth, this is known as malnutrition.
Learn more about Malnutrition.
Meckel's diverticulum is a defect that is present at birth. It’s characterized by a pouch that is a leftover of the umbilical cord that has tissue like the stomach or pancreas within.
Learn more about Meckel's Diverticulum.
Meconium is the medical term for the first stool that a baby passes, usually shortly after it is born. In some instances, the baby passes meconium while still in the womb and breathes it in. This is known as meconium aspiration and can cause some complications.
Learn more about Meconium Aspiration.
Megaloblastic anemia is a type of anemia where the bone marrow produces fewer and abnormally large, oval shaped (instead of round/disk-like) red blood cells, with underdeveloped inside contents (hemoglobin).
Learn more about Megaloblastic Anemia.
Megaloblastic Pernicious Anemia
Please see Megaloblastic Anemia for further information.
Mitochondria are the components within cells that help the cells generate energy. If the mitochondria do not work properly, it can lead to liver diseases known as mitochondrial hepatopathies.
Learn more about Mitochondrial Hepatopathies.
When the lining of the intestines dies off inpremature or even term/pre term infants shortly after birth, this condition is known as necrotizing enterocolitis.
Learn more about Necrotizing Enterocolitis.
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. Neonatal hepatitis is a liver inflammation that occurs in early infancy; frequently between 1-2 months of age from, and in 20% of infants from a virus that infects the liver, passed during pregnancy (or soon after) from mother to baby.
Learn more about Neonatal Hepatitis.
During the digestive process, the body relies on chemicals known as enzymes to break down food into nutrients that the body can use. Some of these enzymes are secreted by an organ called the pancreas. When the pancreas doesn’t produce enough enzymes to digest food properly, the result is pancreatic insufficiency.
Learn more about Pancreatic Insufficiency.
An ulcer is an open sore in the skin, or in the lining tissue of the mouth to the anus (mucus membranes of the gastrointestinal tract ).
Learn more about Peptic Ulcers.
Polyposis refers to a group of diseases that are known for causing polyps in the stomach or other areas of the gastrointestinal tract. Polyps are clusters of cells that form on the lining of the GI tract that carry the risk of cancer over time and cause other problems.
Learn more about Polyposis.
Portal Hypertension Liver Disease
Liver disease, often in the form of liver damage known as cirrhosis, and portal hypertension tend to go hand in hand.
Learn more about Portal Hypertension Liver Disease.
Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis
The bile ducts are channels that are responsible for carrying a digestive juice known as bile from the liver to the small intestine. In primary sclerosing cholangitis, the bile ducts narrow and harden due to inflammation and ultimately can cause serious liver damage.
Learn more about Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.
Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis
Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis is one of many types of progressive liver diseases that ultimately lead to liver failure.
Learn more about Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis.
When the body unexpectedly loses needed protein during digestion, this might be due to a a symptom of a disease called protein-losing enteropathy. This is mainly caused by obstruction of lymph tissue, inflammation or changes to the barrier with in the gut wall.
Learn more about Protein-Losing Enteropathy.
When the valve is narrowed by thickening of the muscles that make up the pylorus, blocking the passage of food, the condition is known as pyloric stenosis or hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.
Learn more about Pyloric Stenosis.
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Deficiency
Depending on the availability of food, the body either uses glucose produced by the breakdown of ingested carbohydrates, when food is plentiful, or fat when food is limited, to produce the energy cells need to function. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of three enzymes is the bridge that gives the body the flexibility to switch from one source of energy to the other. PDC deficiency is a disorder resulting from a lack of one of the three enzymes.
Learn more about Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.
The rectum is the lower portion of the large intestine that meets up with the anus. When the rectum slips through the anus and is exposed, this is known as rectal prolapse.
Learn more about Rectal Prolapse.
Rumination syndrome is a disease in which people effortlessly regurgitate their food a short while after eating, almost every time they eat with no retching prior.
Learn more about Rumination Syndrome.
Short Bowel Syndrome
Short bowel syndrome means that an infant/child doesn't have a long enough functioning bowel to properly absorb food.
Learn more about Short Bowel Syndrome.
Shwachman-Diamond syndrome is a rare complex disorder that affects a child's bone marrow, pancreas and bones (and sometimes other parts of the body).
Learn more about Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome.
Small Bowel Atresia
Small bowel atresia refers to a blocked or narrowed area in the intestines of a baby. It is a form of birth defect. Small bowel atresia occurs when the intestines aren’t formed properly.
Learn more about Small Bowel Atresia.
Small Bowel Bacterial Overgrowth
Some amounts of bacteria present in the small intestine is normal and healthy for its proper function. But when these bacteria proliferate in larger-than-usual numbers and cause problems, it’s known as small bowel bacterial overgrowth.
Learn more about Small Bowel Bacterial Overgrowth.
Stomach and Duodenal Ulcers
Stomach and duodenal ulcers occur when the lining of the stomach or intestines become damaged for numerous reasons. This can lead to several symptoms, most commonly burning stomach pain.
Learn more about Stomach and Duodenal Ulcers.
Stridor is the medical term for noisy breathing. It’s common in children and typically has a high-pitched sound.
Learn more about Stridor.
Children with certain medical problems will need a therapy called total parenteral nutrition. This is a method of delivering nutrients to the child’s body directly through the veins when they cannot tolerate eating. When a child has to be on total parenteral nutrition for a long time, they run the risk of developing TPN-associated cholestasis. Cholestasis is a medical condition when bile, a digestive juice, doesn’t flow correctly from the liver.
Learn more about TPN-Associated Cholestasis.
Ulcerative colitis is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in which the inner lining of the large intestine ( colon ) and rectum become inflamed, on and off, causing symptoms, which come and go.
Learn more about Ulcerative Colitis.
Viral hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver caused by a number of viruses which can damage or destroy liver cells.
Learn more about Viral Hepatitis.
Viruses, Bacteria and Parasites in the Digestive Tract
When it comes to bodily infections, viruses, bacteria, and parasites are some of the most common culprits. When this infection impacts a portion of the digestive tract, whether it’s the esophagus, the stomach, or the intestines, it can cause a number of symptoms and complications.
Learn more about Viruses, Bacteria and Parasites in the Digestive Tract.
Vomiting is a symptom, not a disease and describes the reflexive act of emptying the contents of the stomach up through the mouth.
Learn more about Vomiting.
Wilson’s disease is an uncommon medical condition that’s characterized by excess amounts of the mineral copper accumulating in the brain, liver or other organs. It can lead to a number of concerning symptoms and complications.
Learn more about Wilson's Disease.
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