Gastrointestinal Disorders and Conditions we Treat

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Abdominal Pain (chronic and recurrent)

Chronic and recurrent abdominal pain in children usually refers to the 10-15% of children who complain of recurrent pain in the abdomen for which no specific cause can be found.

Abdominal Wall Abnormalities

When an infant has a birth defect that involves an opening in the abdomen, this is known as an abdominal wall abnormality or abdominal wall defect.


When food does not move easily from the esophagus into the stomach, one potential cause of this situation is a medical condition known as achalasia. The lower esophageal sphincter, which is a ring between the esophagus and stomach, does not relax when achalasia is present, which leads to the condition.

Acute Liver Failure

Acute liver failure is a rare condition in which the liver stops working quite rapidly, and often with no other previous liver problems being present.

Alagille Syndrome

Alagille syndrome is a genetic disorder. It causes problems throughout the body, but one of the common signs is liver damage due to problems with the liver’s bile ducts. Instead of transporting bile away from the liver to other parts of the body, these problems cause bile to build up in the liver and damage it.

Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

Alpha-1 antitrypsin is a protein produced by the liver. It plays a role in protecting the lungs. When the body doesn’t make enough of it, or it can’t travel properly from the liver to the lungs, the disease is known as alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.

Anorectal Malformation

Please see Imperforated Anus for further information.

Anorexia Nervosa

Anorexia is a severe debilitating eating disorder that occurs most frequently in girls that is characterized by a distorted view of their body that leads them to dangerous weight loss behaviors.


The appendix is a finger-like blind-ended tube that arises at the junction of the small and large intestines in the abdomen. Appendicitis is a very common acute infection/inflammation of the appendix usually occurring in children between the ages of 10-19 years.


When excess fluid accumulates in the abdomen, specifically in the area between the abdominal lining and the organs in the abdomen, this is known as ascites. When the fluid buildup contains chyle (a milky-type fluid that contains lymphatic fluid and fat), this form of ascites is known as chylous ascites.


Atresia is a medical term that means that a body part that is tubular in nature does not have a normal opening, or lacks the ability to allow material to pass through it.

Autoimmune Diseases

An autoimmune disease occurs when the body’s immune system (the body's natural defense system against bacteria, viruses and other foreign invaders) mistakenly attacks its own organs and tissues.

Autoimmune Enteropathy

Autoimmune enteropathy occurs when the immune system attacks the intestines, which leads to frequent diarrhea and other nutritional problems in children.

Autoimmune Hepatitis

An autoimmune disorder refers to a medical condition in which the immune system mistakenly attacks the body’s own organs and tissues, thinking they are a foreign invader. Autoimmune hepatitis occurs when the immune system attacks the liver, which leads to liver damage and inflammation.

Bile Acid Synthesis Defects

Bile acids are chemicals in the liver that play several important roles in the body, including helping with the breakdown of fat and removing cholesterol from the body. When the body has trouble producing bile acid, this is known as a bile acid synthesis defect.

Biliary Artresia

The biliary system refers to the ducts and channels that allow the fluid produced in the liver ( bile ) to drain into the intestines

Binge Eating Disorder

Binge eating is a type of eating disorder where abnormally large amounts of food are eaten in a single sitting.


Bulimia is a type of eating disorder where children/adolescents will have episodes of uncontrollable overeating.

Carbohydrate Malabsorption

When people’s bodies are unable to absorb sugars, starches and other carbohydrates, this condition is known as carbohydrate malabsorption. It can lead to a number of complications.

Celiac Disease

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder. This means that the body’s own immune system attacks itself as if it were a foreign invader.

Choledochal Cysts

If a duct draining bile from the liver is dilated or shows an out-pouching in a particular segment, this is called a choledochal cyst.

Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction

In order for food to make its way through the digestive tract, it relies on a process of involuntary muscle contractions known as peristalsis. When peristalsis doesn’t work properly due to nerve or muscle problems, this is known as chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

Cirrhosis of the Liver

Cirrhosis is a fancy term for scarring of the liver. It can occur due to alcohol abuse, hepatitis, and other reasons.

Cloacal Exstrophy

Cloacal exstrophy is a serious birth defect in which the pelvic organs do not form properly. It is a very rare problem, occurring is every 300,000 live births.

Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

The diaphragm is the muscular boundary that helps separate the contents of the chest from those of the abdomen. When there’s a hole within the diaphragm of a growing fetus while it’s in the mother’s womb, this is known as a congenital diaphragmatic hernia, or CDH.

Congenital Hepatic Fibrosis

Congenital hepatic fibrosis is a disease that affects the liver. Specifically, it’s known for causing structural problems with the bile ducts and blood vessels of the liver that are present at birth.

Congenital Hepatitis B

Congenital hepatitis B is a viral infection of a baby’s liver which occurs when a pregnant women infected with HBV passes the virus onto her unborn infant.


Constipation in a common problem in children and is described as a condition where the child has infrequent or hard dry and small bowel movements that are difficult to pass and are painful.

Crohn's Disease

Crohn’s disease is a chronic type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes the intestine anywhere from mouth to anus to become inflamed, and/or ulcerated, causing it to lose its ability to absorb digested foods.

Cyclic Vomiting

Cyclic vomiting is a disorder in which a person has periods of vomiting that can last anywhere from a few hours to several days.

Drug-induced Liver Disease

If use on over-the-counter medications, prescriptions medications, herbs and supplements or illegal drugs ultimately leads an individual to develop liver problems, this is known as drug-induced liver disease.


Dysphagia means difficulty with feeding and/or swallowing from problems with using the mouth/lips, tongue or throat.


Please see Fecal Incontinence for further information.

Enteric duplication

An enteric duplication is the presence of an abnormal cyst or structure in the digestive tract that is contained within the digestive tract and resembles the surrounding organs.

Eosinophilic Esophagitis

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a condition related to food ingestion or inhaled allergens. It is characterized by an isolated inflammation of the esophagus by a specific white blood cell called the eosinophil.

Esophageal Atresia

When a fetus’s esophagus, the tube that carries food to the stomach, does not develop correctly, the defect is known as esophageal atresia.


When the esophagus becomes inflamed, it’s known as esophagitis.

Failure to thrive

If an infant or child is not maintaining or gaining weight at a normal rate, because of inadequate calorie intake, poor food absorption or increased caloric expenditure, the condition is known as failure to thrive.

Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

Familial adenomatous polyposis is a genetic disorder that causes polyps to begin to develop in the colon and rectum over time. Eventually, these polyps can cause colon cancer.

Familial Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis is a disease that affects the pancreas, causing pain and other symptoms. Familial pancreatitis refers to pancreatitis that occurs in a family with a rate that is greater than would be expected by chance alone.

Fatty Liver

Many problems that arise with the liver over time are related to alcohol abuse. In the absence of alcohol abuse, when more than 5 percent of a person’s liver mass develops increased fat accumulation, this is known as fatty liver disease.

Fecal Incontinence

When a child does not have control over their bowel movements (past the age of toilet training- at least 4 years of age), and leaks solid or liquid (or mucous) stool from the rectum at unexpected times, it is known as fecal incontinence.

Feeding Disorders or Difficulties

The terms feeding disorders or feeding difficulties are frequently used to refer to infants and children who have problems with eating enough and/or an appropriate variety of foods.

Food Allergies

Food allergies are when a person develops allergy antibodies (IgE antibodies) to a protein in a food, and when exposed to this protein it causes an allergic reaction.

Food Poisoning

If a person becomes ill after consuming food, this is known as food poisoning. Some form of germ is usually the culprit of the illness, and the symptoms can range from mild to severe.

Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome

Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome occurs in a small percentage of infants after ingestion of an offending food, causing repetitive vomiting sometimes with diarrhea leading to dehydration and possibly shock.

Functional Abdominal Pain

Many forms of abdominal pain are related to problems with the digestive function of the intestinal tract; inflammation within the lining of the intestinal tract; or blockages or other abnormalities in the structure of the intestinal tract or its associated organs.

Functional Constipation

Constipation is a common symptom that refers to the inability or difficulty to produce a bowel movement. In some cases, the constipation can be so severe that it causes dangerous symptoms.

Gallbladder Disease

The gallbladder is a pouch located beneath the liver that stores bile before sending it along to the small intestine. Any medical condition that impacts the gallbladder can be lumped into the category of “gallbladder disease”.


When the lining of the stomach becomes inflamed, this condition is known as gastritis.


Gastroenteritis refers to an inflammation of the intestinal lining that leads to a number of digestive-related and other symptoms.

Gastroesophageal Reflux (GE Reflux)

When digestive acids from the stomach back up or reflux back up the food pipe causing heartburn it's called gastroesophageal reflux.

Gastrointestinal Parasites

When the gastrointestinal tract, most often the intestine, is infected by a parasite, this is often referred to as gastrointestinal parasites. If not treated some parasites may linger for many years and cause long term problems

Gastrointestinal Polyposis

Gastrointestinal polyposis refers to a group of diseases that are known for causing polyps in the stomach, colon, or other areas of the gastrointestinal tract. Polyps are abnormal growths that form on the lining of the GI tract.


Gastroparesis occurs if the muscles and/or nerves of the stomach do not move food properly, causing the stomach to take too long to empty.

Genetic/Metabolic Diseases of the Liver

Certain disorders that children are born with can make it difficult for the liver to process certain nutrients, such as fats, proteins or carbohydrates. This group of disorders is known as genetic/metabolic diseases of the liver.

GI Bleeding

Any internal bleeding that originates anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract is known as GI bleeding.

Giardia and other GI Infections

A wide variety of highly contagious infectious agents can infect the gastrointestinal tract. Giardia, which is a parasite, is one of the more common.

Helicobacter Pylori

Helicobacter pylori is a spiral shaped, motile bacterium that infects the stomach, and duodenum sometimes causing illness.


A hernia is the extension of a portion of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening in the wall that normally contains it.

Hirschsprung's Disease

Hirschsprung's disease describes a congenital condition where nerve cells in the wall of the large bowel that normally develop during intrauterine development are missing.

Imperforated Anus

If a baby is born without an anus (the opening at the end of the digestive tract), then this birth defect is known as an imperforated anus.

Inborn Errors of Metabolism

When a baby has trouble digesting certain foods and turning them into energy, it could be due to inborn errors of metabolism.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are several related illnesses that cause chronic inflammation of the gut with swelling and damage of the bowel lining.

Intestinal Atresia, and Stenosis and Intestinal Cysts

Intestinal atresia, is a type of birth defect, refers to a complete block in an area of the intestines of a baby. It occurs when the intestines aren’t formed properly.

Intestinal Dysmotility

The actions of the muscles and nerves in the gastrointestinal tract that mix and move food (muscle contraction and relaxation) along is the known as motility. When something goes wrong with this action in the muscles or in the nerves of the intestines, this is referred to as intestinal dysmotility.

Intestinal Malrotation and Volvulus

Intestinal malrotation is a defect that is present at birth. It occurs when the intestines do not rotate into the proper position as they are developing in the unborn fetus. One common complication of intestinal malrotation is known as volvulus, which is when the intestine twists in such a manner that it cuts off its own blood supply.

Intra-abdominal cyst

An intra-abdominal cyst is a growth or mass that’s found inside the abdomen that should not be there. It is a birth defect. In some cases, the growth doesn’t cause any further problems, but in other cases it can lead to complications.

Intractable Abdominal Pain

Intractable abdominal pain is abdominal pain that arises in the absence of a structural blockage or inflammation in the intestinal tract, and which bears no or only occasional relationship to bodily processes such as eating, stooling, or menstrual periods. Pain can vary in both frequency and severity.


When part of the intestine folds in on itself and blocks the flow of materials through the intestine, this condition is known as intussusception. It can have potentially serious consequences.

Jejunal Atresia

Atresia is a medical term that means the opening within the hollow of an organ (in this case the intestine) is blocked. Jejunal atresia arise when this portion of the intestine (the jejunum) fails to develop properly. In one form of jejunal atresia, this portion of the bowel wraps around an artery that supplies blood to the colon, giving the appearance of an apple peel. Jejunal atresia is a defect that is present at birth.

Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome

Juvenile polyposis syndrome is a disease that is known for causing polyps different areas of the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly the colon. Polyps are clusters of cells that form on the lining of the GI tract.

Lactose Intolerance

Lactose is a sugar found in milk and milk products. An enzyme called lactase is needed to digest and absorb it.


When children are not getting the necessary nutrients and calories from the diet that they need for daily functioning and growth, this is known as malnutrition.

Meckel's Diverticulum

Meckel's diverticulum is a defect that is present at birth. It’s characterized by a pouch that is a leftover of the umbilical cord that has tissue like the stomach or pancreas within.

Meconium Aspiration

Meconium is the medical term for the first stool that a baby passes, usually shortly after it is born. In some instances, the baby passes meconium while still in the womb and breathes it in. This is known as meconium aspiration and can cause some complications.

Megaloblastic Anemia

Megaloblastic anemia is a type of anemia where the bone marrow produces fewer and abnormally large, oval shaped red blood cells, with underdeveloped inside contents.

Megaloblastic Pernicious Anemia

Please see Megaloblastic Anemia for further information.

Mitochondrial Hepatopathies

Mitochondria are the components within cells that help the cells generate energy. If the mitochondria do not work properly, it can lead to liver diseases known as mitochondrial hepatopathies.

Necrotizing Enterocolitis

When the lining of the intestines dies off inpremature or even term/pre term infants shortly after birth, this condition is known as necrotizing enterocolitis.

Neonatal Hepatitis

Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. Neonatal hepatitis is a liver inflammation that occurs in early infancy; frequently between 1-2 months of age from, and in 20% of infants from a virus that infects the liver, passed during pregnancy (or soon after) from mother to baby.

Pancreatic Insufficiency

During the digestive process, the body relies on chemicals known as enzymes to break down food into nutrients that the body can use. Some of these enzymes are secreted by an organ called the pancreas. When the pancreas doesn’t produce enough enzymes to digest food properly, the result is pancreatic insufficiency.

Peptic Ulcers

An ulcer is an open sore in the skin, or in the lining tissue of the mouth to the anus (mucus membranes of the gastrointestinal tract ).

Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is a genetic disorder that causes affected individuals to develop polyps in their intestines. Polyps are small growths of tissue that are typically non-cancerous, but they can increase the risk of cancer developing over time. Other symptoms can also occur with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.


Polyposis refers to a group of diseases that are known for causing polyps in the stomach or other areas of the gastrointestinal tract. Polyps are clusters of cells that form on the lining of the GI tract that carry the risk of cancer over time and cause other problems.

Portal Hypertension Liver Disease

Liver disease, often in the form of liver damage known as cirrhosis, and portal hypertension tend to go hand in hand.

Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

The bile ducts are channels that are responsible for carrying a digestive juice known as bile from the liver to the small intestine. In primary sclerosing cholangitis, the bile ducts narrow and harden due to inflammation and ultimately can cause serious liver damage.

Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis

Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis is one of many types of progressive liver diseases that ultimately lead to liver failure.

Protein-Losing Enteropathy

When the body unexpectedly loses needed protein during digestion, this might be due to a a symptom of a disease called protein-losing enteropathy. This is mainly caused by obstruction of lymph tissue, inflammation or changes to the barrier with in the gut wall.

Pyloric Stenosis

When the valve is narrowed by thickening of the muscles that make up the pylorus, blocking the passage of food, the condition is known as pyloric stenosis or hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.

Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Deficiency

he pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of three enzymes is the bridge that gives the body the flexibility to switch from one source of energy to the other. PDC deficiency is a disorder resulting from a lack of one of the three enzymes.

Rectal Prolapse

When the rectum slips through the anus and is exposed, this is known as rectal prolapse.

Rumination Syndrome

Rumination syndrome is a disease in which people effortlessly regurgitate their food a short while after eating, almost every time they eat with no retching prior.

Short Bowel Syndrome

Short bowel syndrome means that an infant/child doesn't have a long enough functioning bowel to properly absorb food.

Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome

Shwachman-Diamond syndrome is a rare complex disorder that affects a child's bone marrow, pancreas, bones, and sometimes other parts of the body.

Small Bowel Atresia

Small bowel atresia refers to a blocked or narrowed area in the intestines of a baby. It is a form of birth defect. Small bowel atresia occurs when the intestines aren’t formed properly.

Small Bowel Bacterial Overgrowth

Some amounts of bacteria present in the small intestine is normal and healthy for its proper function. But when these bacteria proliferate in larger-than-usual numbers and cause problems, it’s known as small bowel bacterial overgrowth.

Stomach and Duodenal Ulcers

Stomach and duodenal ulcers occur when the lining of the stomach or intestines become damaged for numerous reasons. This can lead to several symptoms, most commonly burning stomach pain.


Stridor is the medical term for noisy breathing. It’s common in children and typically has a high-pitched sound.

TPN-Associated Cholestasis

Children with certain medical problems will need a therapy called total parenteral nutrition. This is a method of delivering nutrients to the child’s body directly through the veins when they cannot tolerate eating. When a child has to be on total parenteral nutrition for a long time, they run the risk of developing TPN-associated cholestasis. Cholestasis is a medical condition when bile, a digestive juice, doesn’t flow correctly from the liver.

Ulcerative Colitis

Ulcerative colitis is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in which the inner lining of the large intestine ( colon ) and rectum become inflamed, on and off, causing symptoms, which come and go.

Viral Hepatitis

Viral hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver caused by a number of viruses which can damage or destroy liver cells.

Viruses, Bacteria and Parasites in the Digestive Tract

When it comes to bodily infections, viruses, bacteria, and parasites are some of the most common culprits. When this infection impacts a portion of the digestive tract, whether it’s the esophagus, the stomach, or the intestines, it can cause a number of symptoms and complications.

Wilson's Disease

Wilson’s disease is an uncommon medical condition that’s characterized by excess amounts of the mineral copper accumulating in the brain, liver or other organs. It can lead to a number of concerning symptoms and complications.