Conditions We Treat


Amblyopia is a vision problem where the eye or eyes have difficulty focusing clearly on objects. Learn more about Amblyopia.

Astigmatism Hyperopia and Myopia

Astigmatism, hyperopia and myopia are the most common (20%) eye problems seen in children. Astigmatism is a condition where the curve of the cornea (the clear round part in the front of the eye) is abnormal. Hyperopia is when objects up close are seen out of focus. Myopia is when distant objects are seen out of focus. Learn more about Astigmatism Hyperopia and Myopia.


Blepharitis is a benign, often recurring inflammation or infection of the eyelids. It can become chronic lasting into adulthood. Learn more about Blepharitis.

Blocked Tear Duct

The tear duct (nasolacrimal duct) is the tube that carries tears from the corner of the eye to the nose. Blockage (occurring in up to 10% of newborn babies and in 30% of children blockage happens on both sides) prevents tears from lubricating the eye properly or draining normally. Learn more about Blocked Tear Duct.

Blood in the Eye

When blood pools inside the front of the eye (the anterior chamber of the eye between the cornea and the iris), it is known as hyphema, or blood in the eye. Learn more about Blood in the Eye.


When the lens of the eye becomes cloudy or opaque, this condition is known as a cataract. Learn more about Cataracts.


A chalazion is a persistent slow growing painless variably sized swelling or lump (or more than one) found anywhere in the upper and/or lower eyelid. Learn more about Chalazion.

Congenital Malformations of the Lids and Eyes

Any problem with the eyes or eyelids that develops in a fetus while it’s still in the uterus is known as a congenital malformation of the lids and eyes. Learn more about Congenital Malformations of the Lids and Eyes.


Conjunctivitis, also known as pink eye, is an eye infection of the transparent tissue surrounding the eye that is common among children. Learn more about Conjunctivitis.

Corneal Abrasions

The cornea is the clear outer dome shaped surface in the front of the eye covering the eye’s pupil and iris. When it gets injured by a scratch or scrape, it’s known as a corneal abrasion. Learn more about Corneal Abrasions.

Cortical Visual Impairment

Vision is the result of complex processes of which the eyes are only one part. The processing of the visual information (interpretation and translation into visual images) occurs in many parts of the brain. Temporary or permanent vision problems that occur because of injury or damage to the brain areas responsible for vision (as opposed to problems with the eyes) is known as cortical visual impairment. Learn more about Cortical Visual Impairment.

Duane Syndrome

Duane syndrome is a rare congenital eye movement disorder (a form of strabismus) present at birth (more often in girls) where there is difficulty moving the eyes (one or both) horizontally, inwards towards the nose, outwards towards the ears or in both directions (a miswiring of the eye muscles). Learn more about Duane Syndrome.

Eye Injuries and Eye Socket Fracture

Learn more about Eye Injuries and Eye Socket Fracture.

Eye Muscle Disorders

The motion of the eyes as a person moves them to look around is controlled by muscles. When these muscles don’t work properly, this is known as an eye muscle disorder or eye movement disorder. Learn more about Eye Muscle Disorders.


Glaucoma is an eye disorder where the optic nerve gets damaged. Learn more about Glaucoma.


The uvea is the middle layer of the eye that supplies blood and nourishment to the eye. It is made up of 3 parts: the iris (the colored part of the eye), the ciliary body and the choroid. Uveitis refers to the serious inflammation or swelling of this layer. When uveitis occurs near the front of the uvea, (anterior uveitis) the iris alone (iritis, the most common form of uveitis) or the iris and choroid are inflamed. Learn more about Iritis.


Learn more about Keratitis.

Lacrimal or Tearing Problems

When the tear ducts are blocked and do not allow tears to flow from the corners of the eyes properly, this is known as a lacrimal or tearing problem. Learn more about Lacrimal or Tearing Problems.

Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is an inherited form of blindness. Usually occurring in adolescent or older males, rare cases may start early in childhood. Learn more about Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.


Myopia is a common vision problem that’s usually referred to as nearsightedness and is classified as a “refractive error” (when the eye doesn’t focus the light correctly). Myopia is when your child can see things close up but has difficulty seeing objects far away. Learn more about Myopia.

Nasolacrimal Duct Obstructions

Tears normally drain from the eye through small openings in the corners of the eyelids, entering the nose through the nasolacrimal duct (tear duct). When the tear ducts are blocked it’s known as nasolacrimal duct (or tear duct) obstruction. Learn more about Nasolacrimal Duct Obstructions.

Neuro-ophthalmic Causes of Visual Loss

When a problem with the brain or neurological conditions, such as migraine, multiple sclerosis, hydrocephalus, brain tumor, optic atrophy and others, causes vision problems, this is known as neuro-ophthalmic causes of visual loss. Learn more about Neuro-ophthalmic Causes of Visual Loss.

Ocular Injuries

Ocular injury is just a medical term for eye injury, which can take a variety of forms and happen for a number of reasons. Learn more about Ocular Injuries.

Ocular Tumors

Ocular tumors are any type of tumor that impacts the eyeball or the surrounding area. They can be benign or malignant. Learn more about Ocular Tumors.

Optic Neuritis

The optic nerve is the nerve pathway that connects the eye to the brain, sending visual messages to the brain for interpretation. Optic neuritis is an inflammation of the optic nerve, which becomes swollen, doesn’t function normally and results in loss of vision. It can occur in one or both eyes. Learn more about Optic Neuritis.

Optic Pathway Glioma

Glioma is a specific type of slow growing tumor that starts in one of the cells of the brain or spinal cord. When this tumor grows on or around the visual system it is known as an optic pathway glioma. Learn more about Optic Pathway Glioma.

Orbital Cellulitis

Orbital cellulitis is a major infection of the soft tissues behind the eye which may involve the cheeks, eyebrows, eyelids and muscles. Learn more about Orbital Cellulitis.

Pink Eye

Conjunctivitis, also known as pink eye, is an eye infection of the transparent tissue surrounding the eye, that is common among children.


Ptosis is a drooping eyelid with the upper eyelid falling to a lower position than normal. Learn more about Ptosis.

Refractive Errors

Please see Vision Problems for further information.


The retina is the tissue at the back of the eyes that allows children to see both light and color. When cancer develops in the retina, this is known as a retinoblastoma. This type of cancer frequently affects very young children, before the age of 5. Learn more about Retinoblastomas.

Retinopathy of Prematurity

ROP is an eye disease affecting the retina (the tissue at the back of the eye that senses light, sending those signals to the brain to be interpreted as sight) that occurs in some babies who are born very immature (before 31 weeks gestation/1250 grams or less-a normal full term pregnancy is 38-42 weeks). Learn more about Retinopathy of Prematurity.


Sarcoidosis is a rare chronic inflammatory disease which results in granulomas that can usually affects the skin, joints, eyes, lungs, lymph nodes in children. Learn more about Sarcoidosis.


Learn more about Strabismus.


The uvea is the middle colored layer of the eye that supplies blood and nourishment to the eye. Uveitis refers to the inflammation or swelling of this layer which can involve the whole of the uvea (panuveitis), or any part of it. Learn more about Uveitis.

Vascular Malformation in Children

Vision Problems

By 12-16 weeks infants’ eyesight allows them to see clearly and from further away. Over the following year, infants’ eye body/hand coordination improves with long distance judgement becoming more accurate. Usually eye problems tend to present between 18 months and 4 years of age. While a variety of different problems and conditions may occur, two are common: a crossed or wandering eye and one eye focuses differently to the other (for example one eye is more farsighted than the other). School aged children frequently have vision problems which include focus and alignment disorders (like refractive errors, amblyopia-“lazy eye”, and strabismus) and eye diseases (like conjunctivitis, cataracts, and color blindness). Learn more about Vision Problems.