Conditions We Treat
When a person has an abnormality of the pituitary gland, it produces either too much or too little of a particular hormone, which can lead to a number of other disorders. In many an instance, the pituitary gland may show an abnormal appearance but may be a normal variation amongst people.
Learn more about Abnormal Pituitary.
The adrenal glands produce steroid hormones (glucocorticoids-cortisol, and mineralocorticoids-aldosterone) that regulate many bodily functions, including the ability to respond to stress. When the adrenal glands produce insufficient amounts of these hormones, the disorder is known as Addison’s disease.
Learn more about Addison's Disease.
One adrenal gland lies above each kidney. These manufacture a number of hormones that are vital to many bodily functions. When the adrenal glands produce too little or too much of one or more hormones significant health problems occur and these conditions are generally known as adrenal disorders.
Learn more about Adrenal Disorders.
When a newborn infant's genitals are not clearly male or female, the infant is said to have ambiguous genitalia. The baby genitals may have external features of both sexes and/or the sex organs may not match his/her internal sex organs or their genetic sex.
Learn more about Ambiguous Genitalia.
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome
Androgen insensitivity syndrome is a genetic condition in which an individual has the X and Y chromosome of a male, but an incomplete or absent development of male genitalia. It occurs because the body does not respond to male hormones known as androgens.
Learn more about Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome.
Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome
The endocrine system is composed of several glands that produce hormones (endocrine glands) essential to human function. An autoimmune disorder is one in which the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks its own organs and tissues. When this autoimmune reaction attacks many of the body’s tissues and endocrine glands the condition is known autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome.
Learn more about Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome.
Girls and boys may both present with breast issues. Perhaps the commonest breast abnormality in young girls seen in the pediatrician's office is a one sided breast enlargement.
Learn more about Breast Disorders.
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
The adrenal glands are located above the kidneys and help with a number of essential bodily functions. When the adrenal glands do not produce cortisol, which is the stress hormone, the glands become enlarged and produce more testosterone, the male hormone.
Learn more about Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.
Congenital Growth and Development Defects
Congenital growth and developmental defects is the broad general term used to describe defects that occur as the fetus is growing within its mother’s womb.
Learn more about Congenital Growth and Development Defects.
Cushing's Syndrome (Hypercortisolism)
Cushing syndrome is a relatively rare hormone problem in children (it usually occurs in the 25-40 year age group) associated with too much of the “stress hormone” cortisol (which helps your child's body respond to illness or injury) being present.
Learn more about Cushing's Syndrome (Hypercortisolism).
Delayed Puberty/Sexual Development
Late puberty may be defined as a situation where the body’s timing for sexual maturation is later than usual.
Learn more about Delayed Puberty/Sexual Development.
Diabetes (Type 1)
Normally, the pancreas produces a hormone called insulin which enables the sugar in the blood to move into the body’s cells to provide energy. In children with type 1 diabetes, the child’s body no longer produces insulin.
Learn more about Diabetes (Type 1).
Diabetes (Type 2)
Type 2 diabetes is a medical condition in which the body has higher-then-normal blood sugar levels.
Learn more about Diabetes (Type 2).
Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder characterized by extreme thirst and the passing of large amounts of dilute urine.
Learn more about Diabetes Insipidus.
Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Thyroid cancer is cancer that impacts the thyroid gland, a butterfly-shaped gland located in the neck. The most common types of thyroid cancers are known as differentiated thyroid cancers.
Learn more about Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.
Disorders of Sexual Differentiation
What are disorders of sexual differentiation?
Disorders of sexual differentiation can refer to a wide range of different medical conditions that all impact the normal development of the baby’s sexual organs.
Learn more about Disorders of Sexual Differentiation.
Dysmenorrhea is another term for what is commonly called severe and frequent menstrual pain or menstrual cramping.
Learn more about Dysmenorrhea.
The tissue that normally lines a woman's uterus is called the endometrium and this tissue layer is what is shed with every menstruation. When this lining layer is found and grows outside of the uterus (like the ovaries, Fallopian tubes or in the pelvis) the condition is called endometriosis.
Learn more about Endometriosis.
Excessive Hair Growth
When women grow body hair more than is normal or in areas where hair growth usually occurs in men, such as the back, chest or face; the condition is known as hirsutism.
Learn more about Excessive Hair Growth.
Though fat is often seen as unwanted, it’s a critical part of the makeup of the body under the skin. When this fat degrades in an unusual manner and causes scarring or pitting on the skin’s surface, this can be due to fat atrophy.
Learn more about Fat Atrophy.
Fibro Adipose Vascular Anomaly
FAVA is a rare but painful lump (mass) that develops in a muscle (usually involving a limb) where the muscle tissue is replaced by tough fibrous (scar-like) tissue, fatty tissue and abnormal blood vessels. Diagnosis is often delayed till late childhood or adolescence.
Learn more about Fibro Adipose Vascular Anomaly.
Galactorrhoea, refers to a non-breastfeeding person’s breasts producing a milky substance from the nipple of either one or both breasts.
Learn more about Galactorrhea.
Gastroparesis occurs if the muscles and/or nerves of the stomach do not move food properly, causing the stomach to take too long to empty.
Learn more about Gastroparesis.
Medical conditions that impact the gonads, or testes, of men are known as gonadal disorders. In women, the ovaries are also considered gonads.
Learn more about Gonadal Disorders.
Growth Hormone Deficiency
As the name implies, growth hormone is pivotal in helping children grow. It is produced by the pituitary gland, which is located just below the brain. When the pituitary gland does not produce enough growth hormone, this is known as growth hormone deficiency
Learn more about Growth Hormone Deficiency.
When infants, boys, or men have benign (non-cancerous) enlarged breasts, the condition is known as gynecomastia.
Learn more about Gynecomastia.
Congenital hyperinsulinism is a rare genetic condition in which the cells of the body that are responsible for producing insulin (beta cells) produce too much resulting in low blood sugar and a variety of complications. This conditions are called congenital hyperinsulinism.
Learn more about Hyperinsulinism.
What is hyperparathyroidism?
The body has four parathyroid glands located in the neck. These produce parathyroid hormone that regulates calcium levels in the bloodstream and tissues. When the glands produce too much parathyroid hormone, this is known as hyperparathyroidism.
Learn more about Hyperparathyroidism.
Hyperthyroidism in Children
The thyroid gland produces hormones that are critical to the body’s metabolism, among other bodily functions. When the gland produces too much of the hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine (T4 and T3), the result is hyperthyroidism.
Learn more about Hyperthyroidism in Children.
If a person doesn’t have enough calcium circulating in the blood, a not uncommon condition, it is known as hypocalcemia.
Learn more about Hypocalcemia.
Glucose is the main source of fuel for the cells of the body, particularly the brain. Hypoglycemia is the medical term for a low blood sugar ( the normal range depends on prematurity and its type, being full term born and age after birth). It’s a common problem in newborn and preterm infants, and is usually seen in older children as a complication of taking insulin for diabetes mellitus.
Learn more about Hypoglycemia.
The testicles function as part of a brain/gonad (testis in boys) system that stimulates the testes to secrete the male sex hormone called testosterone. Hypogonadism occurs when any part of this system doesn't function appropriately.
Learn more about Hypogonadism.
The pituitary gland is a small gland located at the base of the brain that impacts functions throughout the body. When the gland doesn’t produce enough needed hormones, this is known as hypopituitarism.
Learn more about Hypopituitarism.
The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland located in the neck that produces two important hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine (T4 and T3). When the production of these hormones is lower than usual, the patient has hypothyroidism.
Learn more about Hypothyroidism.
Lipodystrophy is a rare medical condition in which a child has an abnormality in how the body stores fat. Children with lipodystrophy may have very little body fat (fat loss may range from very small areas or total body absence of fat) but store a lot of fat in other parts of the body like the blood or in internal organs. This is often suspected when thin children present with other disorders such as diabetes, a fatty liver, a large spleen, a fatty heart among other presentations.
Learn more about Lipodystrophy.
Mastalgia refers to any type of pain in the breast or muscles/joints near it.
Learn more about Mastalgia.
Micropenis is the medical term for a smaller than a normally formed penis (1.1 to 1.6 inches in the newborn baby).
Learn more about Micropenis.
Mixed Gonadal Dysgenesis
Mixed gonadal dysgenesis is a sex developmental disorder where the gonads are abnormal from there being some cells with XY chromosomes and some with just a single X (chromosome Y mosaicism).
Learn more about Mixed Gonadal Dysgenesis.
Pancreatitis in Children
Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas. The pancreas is an abdominal organ found in the upper part of the abdomen which plays an important role in digestion and controlling the body’s blood sugar.
Learn more about Pancreatitis in Children.
A pheochromocytoma is a rare type of non-cancerous tumor in children (ages 6-14 years) that arises in the adrenal gland (organs that lie just above the kidneys) which secretes a group of chemicals (hormones) that are part of the body’s response to danger (“flight or fight” e.g. they regulate heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, pupil size, change blood flow from skin to muscles among other functions).
Learn more about Pheochromocytomas.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a common (10% of teen girls/ young women) disorder among young women of reproductive age where the ovaries produce more than the normal amount of male hormones (ovaries produce hormones like progesterone and estrogen that cause female characteristics and male hormones called androgens - girls’ and boys’ sex organs both produce these hormones but in different amounts).
Learn more about Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.
Precocious puberty is the earlier than normal presence of the signs of puberty (before 8 years of age in girls, and before 9 years in boys).
Learn more about Precocious Puberty.
Adrenarche means “awakening of the adrenal gland”. There are two adrenal glands, each one lies at the top of each kidney which produce sex hormones that cause some of the changes that are seen when a child's body goes through puberty. For example, pubic and body hair, oily skin, and body odor. When these changes occur early (before 8 years in girls and 9 years in boys), it's called premature adrenarche (during puberty the ovaries and testicles produce the hormones which caused sexual maturity e.g. Breasts etc. in girls and enlarged testes/penis etc. in boy).
Learn more about Premature Adrenarche.
Shwachman-Diamond syndrome is a rare complex disorder that affects a child's bone marrow, pancreas and bones (and sometimes other parts of the body).
Learn more about Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome.
Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion
Antidiuretic hormone, or ADH, is a substance produced by the pituitary that controls how much water the body excretes in the urine. When syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is present, the body retains too much water.
Learn more about Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion.
Thalamic Astrocytoma and Hypothalamic Astrocytoma
An astrocytoma (a common type of glioma) is a form of brain cancer that starts in brain cells (astrocytes) that support and nourish other brain cells.
Learn more about Thalamic Astrocytoma and Hypothalamic Astrocytoma.
Thyroglossal Duct Cyst
A thyroglossal duct cyst is a mass that forms in the neck, most often in children. It’s formed from leftover tissues that remain in the body after the thyroid gland forms in the fetus.
Learn more about Thyroglossal Duct Cyst.
Please see Thyroid Nodules for further information.
The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped organ located in the front of the base of the neck that produces hormones that regulate many important functions of the body (e.g. breathing, heart rate, brain and nerve function, body weight, temperature muscle strength and many others). A thyroid nodule (or lump) is a fairly rare unusual firm growth of cells that occur within the thyroid gland and there are several types. While thyroid nodules are frequently benign in children (non-cancerous) they are more likely to be cancerous than they are in adults.
Learn more about Thyroid Nodules.