Pediatric Endocrine Disorders we Treat

The Division of Pediatric Endocrinology offers evaluation and treatment for endocrine disorders, growth disorders, sexual development (puberty) disorders, and thyroid disorders in children and adolescents, such as:

Abnormal Pituitary

When a person has an abnormality of the pituitary gland, it produces either too much or too little of a particular hormone, which can lead to a number of other disorders. In many an instance, the pituitary gland may show an abnormal appearance but may be a normal variation amongst people.

Addison's Disease

The adrenal glands produce steroid hormones known as glucocorticoids-cortisol, and mineralocorticoids-aldosterone that regulate many bodily functions, including the ability to respond to stress. When the adrenal glands produce insufficient amounts of these hormones, the disorder is known as Addison’s disease.

Adrenal Disorders

One adrenal gland lies above each kidney. These manufacture a number of hormones that are vital to many bodily functions. When the adrenal glands produce too little or too much of one or more hormones significant health problems occur and these conditions are generally known as adrenal disorders.

Ambiguous Genitalia

When a newborn infant's genitals are not clearly male or female, the infant is said to have ambiguous genitalia. The baby genitals may have external features of both sexes and/or the sex organs may not match his/her internal sex organs or their genetic sex.

Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

Androgen insensitivity syndrome is a genetic condition in which an individual has the X and Y chromosome of a male, but an incomplete or absent development of male genitalia. It occurs because the body does not respond to male hormones known as androgens.

Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome

The endocrine system is composed of several glands that produce hormones, known as endocrine glands, that are essential to human function. An autoimmune disorder is one in which the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks its own organs and tissues. When this autoimmune reaction attacks many of the body’s tissues and endocrine glands, the condition is known autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome.

Breast Disorders

Girls and boys may both present with breast issues. Perhaps the commonest breast abnormality in young girls seen in the pediatrician's office is a one sided breast enlargement.

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

The adrenal glands are located above the kidneys and help with a number of essential bodily functions. When the adrenal glands do not produce cortisol, which is the stress hormone, the glands become enlarged and produce more testosterone, the male hormone.

Congenital Growth and Development Defects

Congenital growth and developmental defects is the broad general term used to describe defects that occur as the fetus is growing within its mother’s womb.

Cushing's Syndrome (Hypercortisolism)

Cushing syndrome is a relatively rare hormone problem in children (it usually occurs in the 25-40 year age group) associated with too much of the “stress hormone” cortisol (which helps your child's body respond to illness or injury) being present.

Delayed Puberty/Sexual Development

Late puberty may be defined as a situation where the body’s timing for sexual maturation is later than usual.

Diabetes (Type 1)

Normally, the pancreas produces a hormone called insulin which enables the sugar in the blood to move into the body’s cells to provide energy. In children with type 1 diabetes, the child’s body no longer produces insulin.

Diabetes (Type 2)

Type 2 diabetes is a medical condition in which the body has higher-then-normal blood sugar levels.

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder characterized by extreme thirst and the passing of large amounts of dilute urine.

Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid cancer is cancer that impacts the thyroid gland, a butterfly-shaped gland located in the neck. The most common types of thyroid cancers are known as differentiated thyroid cancers.

Disorders of Sexual Differentiation

What are disorders of sexual differentiation? Disorders of sexual differentiation can refer to a wide range of different medical conditions that all impact the normal development of the baby’s sexual organs.


Dysmenorrhea is another term for what is commonly called severe and frequent menstrual pain or menstrual cramping.


When the tissue that normally lines a woman's uterus (endometrium) grows outside of the uterus the condition is called endometriosis.

Excessive Hair Growth

When women grow body hair more than is normal or in areas where hair growth usually occurs in men, such as the back, chest or face; the condition is known as hirsutism.

Fat Atrophy

Though fat is often seen as unwanted, it’s a critical part of the makeup of the body under the skin. When this fat degrades in an unusual manner and causes scarring or pitting on the skin’s surface, this can be due to fat atrophy.

Fibro Adipose Vascular Anomaly

FAVA is a rare but painful lump or mass that develops in a muscle, usually involving a limb, where the muscle tissue is replaced by tough, fibrous or scar-like tissue, fatty tissue and abnormal blood vessels. Diagnosis is often delayed till late childhood or adolescence.


Galactorrhoea, refers to a non-breastfeeding person's breasts producing a milky substance from the nipple of either one or both breasts.


Gastroparesis occurs if the muscles and/or nerves of the stomach do not move food properly, causing the stomach to take too long to empty.

Gonadal Disorders

Medical conditions that impact the gonads, or testes, of men are known as gonadal disorders. In women, the ovaries are also considered gonads.

Growth Hormone Deficiency

As the name implies, growth hormone is pivotal in helping children grow. It is produced by the pituitary gland, which is located just below the brain. When the pituitary gland does not produce enough growth hormone, this is known as growth hormone deficiency


When infants, boys, or men have benign enlarged breasts, the condition is known as gynecomastia.


Congenital hyperinsulinism is a rare genetic condition in which the cells of the body that are responsible for producing insulin, known as beta cells, produce too much resulting in low blood sugar and a variety of complications. This conditions are called congenital hyperinsulinism.


The body has four parathyroid glands located in the neck. These produce parathyroid hormone that regulates calcium levels in the bloodstream and tissues. When the glands produce too much parathyroid hormone, this is known as hyperparathyroidism.


The thyroid gland produces hormones that are critical to the body’s metabolism, among other bodily functions. When the gland produces too much of the hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine (T4 and T3), the result is hyperthyroidism.


If a person doesn’t have enough calcium circulating in the blood, a not uncommon condition, it is known as hypocalcemia.


Hypoglycemia is the medical term for a low blood sugar. It’s a common problem in newborn and preterm infants, and is usually seen in older children as a complication of taking insulin for diabetes mellitus.


In boys the testicles function as part of a brain/gonad system that secrets the male sex hormone testosterone. Hypogonadism occurs when any part of this system doesn't function appropriately.


The pituitary gland is a small gland located at the base of the brain that impacts functions throughout the body. When the gland doesn’t produce enough needed hormones, this is known as hypopituitarism.


Lipodystrophy is a rare medical condition in which a child has an abnormality in how the body stores fat.


Mastalgia refers to any type of pain in the breast or muscles/joints near it.


Micropenis is the medical term for a smaller than a normally formed penis (1.1 to 1.6 inches in the newborn baby).

Mixed Gonadal Dysgenesis

Mixed gonadal dysgenesis is a sex developmental disorder where the gonads are abnormal from there being some cells with XY chromosomes and some with just a single X, ,known as chromosome Y mosaicism.


Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas. The pancreas is an abdominal organ found in the upper part of the abdomen which plays an important role in digestion and controlling the body’s blood sugar.


A pheochromocytoma is a rare type of non-cancerous tumor in children that arises in the adrenal gland, which are organs that lie just above the kidneys that secretes a group of chemicals, or hormones, that are part of the body’s response to danger known as “flight or fight” response (e.g. they regulate heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, pupil size, change blood flow from skin to muscles among other functions..

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a common disorder among young women of reproductive age where the ovaries produce more than the normal amount of male hormones.

Precocious Puberty

Precocious puberty is the earlier than normal presence of the signs of puberty (before 8 years of age in girls, and before 9 years in boys).


Prediabetes is a medical condition in which the body has higher-then-normal blood sugar levels between 100 to 125 milligrams per deciliter, but is not yet Type 2.

Premature Adrenarche

Adrenarche means “awakening of the adrenal gland”. There are two adrenal glands, each one lies at the top of each kidney which produce sex hormones that cause some of the changes that are seen when a child's body goes through puberty. For example, pubic and body hair, oily skin, and body odor. When these changes occur early (before 8 years in girls and 9 years in boys), it's called premature adrenarche (during puberty the ovaries and testicles produce the hormones which caused sexual maturity e.g. Breasts etc. in girls and enlarged testes/penis etc. in boy).

Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome

Shwachman-Diamond syndrome is a rare complex disorder that affects a child's bone marrow, pancreas, bones, and sometimes other parts of the body.

Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion

Antidiuretic hormone, or ADH, is a substance produced by the pituitary that controls how much water the body excretes in the urine. When syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is present, the body retains too much water.

Thalamic Astrocytoma and Hypothalamic Astrocytoma

An astrocytoma, a common type of glioma, is a form of brain cancer that starts in brain cells, known as astrocytes, that support and nourish other brain cells.

Thyroglossal Duct Cyst

A thyroglossal duct cyst is a mass that forms in the neck, most often in children. It’s formed from leftover tissues that remain in the body after the thyroid gland forms in the fetus.

Thyroid Disorders

Please see Thyroid Nodules for further information.