Alagille syndrome is a genetic disorder. It causes problems throughout the body, but one of the common signs is liver damage due to problems with the liver’s bile ducts. Instead of transporting bile away from the liver to other parts of the body, these problems cause bile to build up in the liver and damage it. Learn more about Alagille Syndrome.
Alpha-1 antitrypsin is a protein produced by the liver. It plays a role in protecting the lungs. When the body doesn’t make enough of it, or it can’t travel properly from the liver to the lungs, the disease is known as alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Learn more about Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.
When a newborn infant's genitals are not clearly male or female, the infant is said to have ambiguous genitalia. The baby genitals may have external features of both sexes and/or the sex organs may not match his/her internal sex organs or their genetic sex. Learn more about Ambiguous Genitalia.
Amniotic bands are thin fibers of tissue that sometimes form inside the mother’s womb when the fetus is growing inside. If the unborn fetus gets entangled within these fibers, it can cause a variety of symptoms and complications. This is known as amniotic band sequence. Learn more about Amniotic Band Syndrome.
Androgen insensitivity syndrome is a genetic condition in which an individual has the X and Y chromosome of a male, but an incomplete or absent development of male genitalia. It occurs because the body does not respond to male hormones known as androgens. Learn more about Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome.
Angelman syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that begins to show symptoms around 6 to 12 months of age. Children with Angelman syndrome have global developmental delays, seizures and excitable, happy personalities as a general rule. Learn more about Angelman Syndrome.
Asperger's syndrome describes a group of symptoms in children who have difficulties with social, behavioral and communication skills who have only mildly abnormal/good language and cognitive skills with average/above average intelligence. Learn more about Asperger's Syndrome.
Bile acids are chemicals in the liver that play several important roles in the body, including helping with the breakdown of fat and removing cholesterol from the body. When the body has trouble producing bile acid, this is known as a bile acid synthesis defect. Learn more about Bile Acid Synthesis Defects.
Any unusual physical feature or health problem that is present at the birth of a baby is known as a birth defect or a congenital anomaly. Learn more about Birth Defects and Congenital Anomalies.
Dwarfism is a type of short stature. There are hundreds of different medical conditions that can affect ultimate size and/or the growth of an infant. Learn more about Bone Dysplasia.
Cavernous malformations are frequently small clusters of blood vessels that form abnormally. Learn more about Cavernous Malformations.
Cerebral palsy is a condition that impacts the muscles, posture and movement. People with the disorder often have trouble moving or walking due to the limitations created by this condition. In many cases, complications that occur at birth can lead to cerebral palsy. Learn more about Cerebral Palsy from Birth-Related Complications.
Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion is a disorder that occurs when a small part of chromosome 22 is missing at birth. It leads to a wide variety of complications in children born with the disorder. Learn more about Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion.
While all babies cry, a baby who cries excessively for no apparent reason and cannot be soothed between the ages of 3 weeks and 3 months (worst at 6-8 weeks of age) and who cries for more than 3 hours per day, for more than 3 days a week for at least 3 weeks in a row is described as having colic. Learn more about Colic.
Congenital anomalies of the urogenital tract, are a broad group of common, mild to life-threatening malformations of the kidney/ureters/bladder/urethra/penis/testis/and female genitalia (one or more parts) present at birth that occur during fetal development of the urinary/genital system. Learn more about Congenital Anomalies of the Urinary Tract.
Congenital growth and developmental defects is the broad general term used to describe defects that occur as the fetus is growing within its mother’s womb. Learn more about Congenital Growth and Development Defects.
Cornelia de Lange syndrome is a rare genetic disorder than can impact things such as facial features, limbs, and overall physical and intellectual growth. Signs of the disease are typically present at birth and even before. Learn more about Cornelia de Lange Syndrome.
Craniofacial is a broad medical term that describes abnormalities of the bones of the skull and face. Learn more about Craniofacial Abnormalities.
Cyclic vomiting is a disorder in which a person has periods of vomiting that can last anywhere from a few hours to several days. Learn more about Cyclic Vomiting.
Late puberty may be defined as a situation where the body’s timing for sexual maturation is later than usual. Learn more about Delayed Puberty/Sexual Development.
Depression is a common clinical condition that affects a child/adolescents mood and mental health, for more than two weeks, severe enough to interfere with everyday living. Learn more about Depression.
What are disorders of sexual differentiation?
Disorders of sexual differentiation can refer to a wide range of different medical conditions that all impact the normal development of the baby’s sexual organs. Learn more about Disorders of Sexual Differentiation.
Babies with down syndrome have an extra full or partial piece of chromosome 21, this causes a variety of physical abnormalities. It is the commonest chromosomal disorder in the USA. Learn more about Down Syndrome.
Please see Bone Dysplasia for further information.
Depression is a common (2% of preschool and school age children; higher in adolescents) clinical condition that affects a child/adolescents mood and mental health, for more than two weeks, severe enough to interfere with everyday living.
Pancreatitis is a disease that affects the pancreas, causing pain and other symptoms. Familial pancreatitis refers to pancreatitis that occurs in a family with a rate that is greater than would be expected by chance alone. Learn more about Familial Pancreatitis.
FAVA is a rare but painful lump (mass) that develops in a muscle (usually involving a limb) where the muscle tissue is replaced by tough fibrous (scar-like) tissue, fatty tissue and abnormal blood vessels. Diagnosis is often delayed till late childhood or adolescence. Learn more about Fibro Adipose Vascular Anomaly.
Rare genetic metabolic disorder that affects an individual's ability to metabolize the sugar galactose properly.Galactose is a sugar that’s present in milk and dairy products. The body converts it into glucose in order to use it. When the body is not able to break down and use galactose, this condition is known as galactosemia. Learn more about Galactosemia.
Gastrointestinal polyposis refers to a group of diseases that are known for causing polyps in the stomach, colon, or other areas of the gastrointestinal tract. Polyps are abnormal growths that form on the lining of the GI tract. Learn more about Gastrointestinal Polyposis.
Genetic diseases are conditions that occur due to a mutation in a gene ( a unit of hereditary ) in your body’s cells. Learn more about Genetic Diseases.
Certain disorders that children are born with can make it difficult for the liver to process certain nutrients, such as fats, proteins or carbohydrates. This group of disorders is known as genetic/metabolic diseases of the liver. Learn more about Genetic/Metabolic Diseases of the Liver.
Glucose transporter type 1 is a rare genetic disorder where the protein that is necessary to carry glucose from the bloodstream into the brain is lacking. Learn more about Glucose Transporter Type 1 Deficiency.
If a person doesn’t have enough calcium circulating in the blood, a not uncommon condition, it is known as hypocalcemia. Learn more about Hypocalcemia.
Please see Neurogenetic–Neurometabolic Abnormalities for further information.
When a baby has trouble digesting certain foods and turning them into energy, it
could be due to inborn errors of metabolism. Learn more about Inborn Errors of Metabolism.
Jeune’s syndrome is a genetic condition that children are born with. It involves physical abnormalities related to the bones, including a small chest, short ribs short arms and legs and extra fingers and toes. Breathing difficulties and other problems are often related to the condition. Learn more about Jeune's Syndrome.
Learn more about Kabuki Syndrome.
Kallman syndrome is a disorder in which individuals either go through delayed puberty or don’t go through puberty at all. This is also couple with a missing or impaired sense of smell. Learn more about Kallmann Syndrome.
Klinefelter syndrome is a chromosomal genetic disorder in which a male infant is born with an extra X chromosome XXY. Learn more about Klinefelter Syndrome.
Kniest dysplasia is a genetic condition that leads to skeletal dysplasia with short stature, or dwarfism. Along with shorter bones, babies with Kniest dysplasia may have vision and hearing problems along with other abnormalities. Learn more about Kniest Dysplasia.
Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a genetic disorder that increases the risk of getting certain forms of cancer in children and adults. Learn more about Li-Fraumeni Syndrome.
Loeys-Dietz syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that negatively affects the formation of a child’s connective tissue that surrounds, supports and protects all tissues and organs of the body. Learn more about Loeys-Dietz Syndrome.
Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder that negatively affects the connective tissue of the body. The problems caused by Marfan syndrome can lead to issues with the heart, blood vessels, muscles, bones and ligaments, among other problems. Learn more about Marfan Syndrome.
Metabolic storage diseases are a fairly large group of rare genetic inherited disorders in which specific enzymes of a child's cell are insufficient. Enzymes help break down certain materials within the cell for proper cell function. Learn more about Metabolic Storage Diseases.
Mitochondria are the special compartments within most body cells that are responsible for producing energy for life and organ function. If there’s a problem with how the mitochondria function, this can be a categorized as a mitochondrial disease. It’s a potentially serious, life-threatening problem. There are several mitochondrial diseases currently known. Learn more about Mitochondrial Disease.
Mixed gonadal dysgenesis is a sex developmental disorder where the gonads are abnormal from there being some cells with XY chromosomes and some with just a single X (chromosome Y mosaicism). Learn more about Mixed Gonadal Dysgenesis.
Morquio syndrome is a genetic disorder where a baby has trouble breaking down sugar chains in the body. Learn more about Morquio Syndrome.
Please see Down Syndrome for further information.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is a disease that affects several glands throughout the body, including the thyroid, parathyroid and pituitary gland. It causes tumors in these glands and also imbalances in the hormones that the glands produce. The pancreas and small intestine are also impacted by the disease. Learn more about Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 is a disease that affects several glands throughout the body, including the thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal gland. It causes tumors in these glands and also imbalances in the hormones that the glands produce. It differs from multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 based on the genetic mutation that causes it, and some of the glands that it impacts. Learn more about Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2.
NAS is a group of problems that occur after delivery when a baby has been exposed during intrauterine life to illicit addictive drugs taken by his/her mother. Learn more about Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome.
Neurogenetic and neurometabolic abnormalities are disorders that affect how the brain ( and/or other organs) function. Learn more about Neurogenetic–Neurometabolic Abnormalities.
Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is a genetic disorder that impacts several areas of the body. The common problems associated with the disease include an increased risk of skin cancer or tumors, a unique facial appearance and problems with the bones, endocrine glands, nervous system and other areas of the body. Learn more about Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome.
Noonan syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by features such as heart defects, short stature, unique facial features and other physical abnormalities. Learn more about Noonan Syndrome.
Parkes Weber syndrome is a birth defect that involves the presence of arteriovenous malformations. These are abnormal blood vessels present where the arteries connect with the veins. Learn more about Parkes Weber Syndrome.
Parry Romberg syndrome is a genetic disorder that leads to the skin and tissues on half the face becoming soft and gradually deteriorating. It also can impact the mouth, gums and jaw. Learn more about Parry Romberg Syndrome.
While the fetus is growing in the womb, the openings for the anus, vagina and urethra actually start out bundled together in a formation known as the cloaca. When these fail to separate from one another as the fetus develops, this is known as persistent cloaca and can cause complications. Learn more about Persistent Cloaca.
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is a genetic disorder that causes affected individuals to develop polyps in their intestines. Polyps are small growths of tissue that are typically non-cancerous, but they can increase the risk of cancer developing over time. Other symptoms can also occur with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Learn more about Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome.
Children with phenylketonuria do not produce an enzyme that helps o breaks down the amino acid phenylalanine. Buildup of phenylalanine can lead to symptoms such as delayed physical and intellectual development. Learn more about Phenylketonuria.
Glycogen is a complex carbohydrate that is present in many foods. In the body, the enzyme alpha-glucosidase breaks glycogen down into glucose so the body can use it. When the body doesn’t have enough (or has no) of this enzyme, it can’t break down glycogen. This condition is known as Pompe disease. Learn more about Pompe Disease.
PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome gets its name due to the gene that is impacted by this group of diseases, the PTEN gene. The primary symptoms is the presence of hamartomas, which are non-cancerous growths that can affect various areas of the body. Learn more about PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome.
Depending on the availability of food, the body either uses glucose produced by the breakdown of ingested carbohydrates, when food is plentiful, or fat when food is limited, to produce the energy cells need to function. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of three enzymes is the bridge that gives the body the flexibility to switch from one source of energy to the other. PDC deficiency is a disorder resulting from a lack of one of the three enzymes. Learn more about Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.
Rett syndrome is a genetic condition that impacts the development of the brain. The primary result is that the muscles that control speech, body movements and the eyes don’t work as well as they should. Girls are the primary victims of the disorder. Learn more about Rett Syndrome.
Reye syndrome is a disorder that causes swelling and damage to the brain and liver that come on quite suddenly. It used to be common in children during treatment of the flu or chickenpox, but thankfully the condition has become increasingly rare. Learn more about Reye Syndrome.
Rhabdoid tumors are abnormal growths that frequently affect the brain, kidneys or spinal cord, among other parts of the body. Learn more about Rhabdoid Tumor Predisposition Syndrome.
When a baby is born, there are sutures, or seams, between the bones that make up the skull. Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is one of many disorders that results in these sutures closing early and preventing the skull from growing properly. Learn more about Saethre-Chotzen Syndrome.
Most humans have 46 chromosomes in their cells, which occur in pairs for a total of 23. Twenty-two of these pairs are quite similar in both males and females, but the final pair is the sex chromosomes. This occurs typically as “XX” in women and “XY” in men. When there are differences in these chromosomes from the usual presentation, these are known as sex chromosome anomalies. Learn more about Sex Chromosome Anomalies.
Sickle cell disease is a group of familial red blood cell disorders. The red blood cell carries hemoglobin, which is the protein inside red blood cells that helps the cells transport oxygen. The hemoglobin in sickle cell disease causes the red blood cells to be oddly shaped, and have difficulty flowing through the blood vessels properly which causes them to break up easily resulting in anemia. Moreover, this odd shape of the red cells cause them to get stuck in the small blood vessel and cause damage to the organs. Sickle cell anemia (SS) is the most common and severe form of sickle cell disease. Learn more about Sickle Cell Disease.
Stickler syndrome is a genetic disorder that commonly starts to show symptoms during infancy or childhood. The most common problems occur with the joints, hearing or vision. Unusual facial features are also characteristic of Stickler syndrome. Learn more about Stickler Syndrome.
This is a rare congenital disorder associated with a Port-Wine Stain birthmark on the face, glaucoma, seizures, intellectual disabilities, and arteriovenous malformations of the brain. Learn more about Sturge-Weber Syndrome (SWS).
Thrombophilia is an abnormality of the normal blood clotting mechanisms. Learn more about Thrombophilia.
Treacher Collins is a genetic disorder that impacts how the face develops. Specifically, it can cause abnormal development of the jaws, ears, eyelids and cheekbones. Learn more about Treacher Collins.
Trisomies and monosomies are two types of chromosomal abnormalities. Specifically, a trisomy is when a person has three of a particular chromosome, instead of the usual two. A monosomy is when they just have one chromosome instead of the usual two. Learn more about Trisomies and Monosomies.
Please see Down Syndrome for further information.
Turner syndrome is a condition that affects girls and women, it is caused by a missing or partially missing X chromosome. Clinical symptoms include short stature, delayed puberty, infertility, learning disabilities and heart defects. Learn more about Turner Syndrome.
VATER syndrome refers to several birth defects that frequently occur in conjunction with one another. The letters stand for vertebrae, anus, trachea, esophagus and renal. Learn more about VATER Syndrome.
Please see Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion for further information.
Williams syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that causes short stature, developmental delay, unique facial features and growth delays, among many other symptoms including heart problems. Learn more about Williams Syndrome.
B cells are a type of white blood cell that play a pivotal role in keeping the body free of infection. When individuals, primarily males, have a very low number of B cells, the cause may be X-linked agammaglobulinemia. It can lead to a number of complications. Learn more about X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia.
X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is a genetic disease in which the immune system does not work as well as it should. Learn more about X-Linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome.