Common afflictions and disorders of adolescents and teens

Amenorrhea in Teens

Amenorrhea is defined as a girl not having a menstrual “period” for three monthly cycles or longer. Learn more

Anorexia Nervosa

Anorexia is a severe debilitating eating disorder that occurs most frequently in girls that is characterized by a distorted view of their body that leads them to believe they're overweight and need to restrict how much they eat, over exercise, and/or perform other behaviors that prevents them from gaining weight, almost to starvation. Learn more

Binge Eating Disorder

Binge eating is a type of eating disorder where abnormally large amounts of food are eaten in a single sitting. Learn more

Breast Disorders

Girls and boys may both present with breast issues. Perhaps the commonest breast abnormality in young girls seen in the pediatrician's office is a one sided breast enlargement. Learn more


Bulimia is a type of eating disorder where children/adolescents will have episodes of uncontrollable overeating. Learn more


Candidiasis is the scientific term for an infection caused by the yeast-like fungus Candida albicans. Normally it lives on/in the body and is harmless; often being found on the skin, vaginal area, and gastrointestinal tract. Learn more


Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted bacterial disease that is most commonly passed, through any form of sexual contact, from one person to another. Anyone having sexual contact can get the disease, without knowing it and those with many sexual partners are at greatest risk. Learn more

Chronic Fatigue

It’s a disabling and complex condition that can be difficult to diagnose and treat, occurring much more commonly in girls than in boys. It may last a long time. Learn more

Delayed Puberty/Sexual Development

Late puberty may be defined as a situation where the body’s timing for sexual maturation is later than usual. Learn more

Disorders of Sexual Differentiation

What are disorders of sexual differentiation? Disorders of sexual differentiation can refer to a wide range of different medical conditions that all impact the normal development of the baby’s sexual organs. Learn more


Dysmenorrhea is another term for what is commonly called severe and frequent menstrual pain or menstrual cramping. Learn more

Eating Disorders

The term “Eating disorder” refers to a variety of persistent and different eating or eating related behaviors that result in a change in the way a child/adolescent/young adult consumes or absorbs food and which significantly causes poorer physical and psychosocial functioning. Learn more


The tissue that normally lines a woman's uterus is called the endometrium and this tissue layer is what is shed with every menstruation. When this lining layer is found and grows outside of the uterus (like the ovaries, Fallopian tubes or in the pelvis) the condition is called endometriosis. Learn more

Excessive Hair Growth

When women grow body hair more than is normal or in areas where hair growth usually occurs in men, such as the back, chest or face; the condition is known as hirsutism. Learn more

Failure to thrive

If an infant or child is not maintaining or gaining weight at a normal rate, because of inadequate calorie intake, poor food absorption or increased caloric expenditure, the condition is known as failure to thrive. Learn more

Family Planning

The term family planning refers to an overall medical and culturally sensitive strategy intended to control the timing and number of pregnancies and children in a family. Learn more


Galactorrhoea, refers to a non-breastfeeding person’s breasts producing a milky substance from the nipple of either one or both breasts. Learn more

Gonadal Disorders

Medical conditions that impact the gonads, or testes, of men are known as gonadal disorders. In women, the ovaries are also considered gonads. Learn more


Gonorrhea is a bacterial infection that is spread through sexual contact. It can cause symptoms that impact the sexual organs as well as other areas of the body. Learn more


When infants, boys, or men have benign (non-cancerous) enlarged breasts, the condition is known as gynecomastia. Learn more


Herpes is a disease that affects the skin i.e., mouth, lips and face or the genitals. The symptoms typically involve sores that appear on the body and develop into itchy and painful blisters. Learn more


The testicles function as part of a brain/gonad (testis in boys) system that stimulates the testes to secrete the male sex hormone called testosterone. Hypogonadism occurs when any part of this system doesn't function appropriately. Learn more

Imperforate Hymen

The hymen is a thin layer of tissue that commonly surrounds the vaginal opening in girls. If the hymen covers the entire vaginal opening, it is known as imperforate hymen. Learn more

Infectious Mononucleosis

Infectious mononucleosis is a viral infection that is common among adolescents and young adults. It is often called the kissing disease because it can be spread through the saliva, though it can be transmitted in other ways, as well. Learn more

Labial Adhesions

The labia (two pairs) are the outer lips of the vagina- labia majora are the thicker fatter folds of skin that cover and protect the inner more delicate parts of the girls external genitalia. Ordinarily both pairs of labia are separated from one another. In some young girls however the labia minora stick together. Adhesions are most often seen in girls aged 3 months to 6 years and may be mild or severe where most of it is stuck together. Learn more

Labial Hypertrophy

Labial hypertrophy is a harmless condition where the inner labia (usually) is larger than normal, however either one or both labia can be affected. Learn more

Labial Hypoplasia

Labial hypoplasia is the harmless condition where one or both sides of the labia either are missing or don't grow normally during puberty. Learn more


Mastalgia refers to any type of pain in the breast or muscles/joints near it. Learn more


Mastitis is an inflammation of the breast, which may, or may not be related to an infection. Learn more

Menstrual Irregularities

Menstrual irregularities are abnormalities associated with a girl’s normal monthly menstruation period. Learn more

Menstrual Reproductive Disorder

Menstrual reproductive disorder is a term that can be used to refer to the broad range of conditions related to the menstrual cycle. Learn more

Microperforate Hymen

The hymen is a thin half moon layer of tissue that commonly surrounds part of the vagina in girls. If the hymen covers the entire vagina and has only one very small hole in the center of it, it is known as microperforate hymen. Learn more


Mononucleosis is a viral infection that is common among adolescents and young adults. It is often called the kissing disease because it can be spread through the saliva, though it can be transmitted in other ways, as well. Learn more

Ovarian Mass/Cyst

Ovarian cysts are usually non-cancerous fluid filled sacs that frequently disappear on their own; in young girls < 8 years of age, most tumors found are also benign. Learn more

Pelvic Pain in Girls

Pain below the umbilicus, in the lower part of the abdomen and between the hip bones is referred to as pelvic pain. Learn more

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a common (10% of teen girls/ young women) disorder among young women of reproductive age where the ovaries produce more than the normal amount of male hormones (ovaries produce hormones like progesterone and estrogen that cause female characteristics and male hormones called androgens - girls’ and boys’ sex organs both produce these hormones but in different amounts). Learn more

Precocious Puberty

Precocious puberty is the earlier than normal presence of the signs of puberty (before 8 years of age in girls, and before 9 years in boys). Learn more

Premature Adrenarche

Adrenarche means “awakening of the adrenal gland”. There are two adrenal glands, each one lies at the top of each kidney which produce sex hormones that cause some of the changes that are seen when a child's body goes through puberty. For example, pubic and body hair, oily skin, and body odor. When these changes occur early (before 8 years in girls and 9 years in boys), it's called premature adrenarche (during puberty the ovaries and testicles produce the hormones which caused sexual maturity e.g. Breasts etc. in girls and enlarged testes/penis etc. in boy). Learn more

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) refers to a group of uncomfortable symptoms or painful cramps that girls commonly experience (~ 75%) just before or during their monthly period. Learn more

Puberty and Menstrual Concerns

Puberty is that time when a child is changed into an adult. As children reach the age of adolescence and puberty, a variety of concerns can arise for both boys and girls as their bodies mature sexually. In girls, these concerns usually take the form of problems with their menstrual cycle. Learn more

Septate Hymen

The hymen is thin half moon membrane of tissue that commonly partially covers the opening of a girl’s vagina. When the hymen has an extra band of tissue that runs down its middle and creates two openings into the vagina, it is known as a septate hymen. Learn more

Septate Uterus

A septate uterus is a congenital (developing before birth) anomaly of a normally shaped uterus where a wall of tissue runs down the middle (extending partially down the center, or all the way completely), dividing the uterine cavity into two. Learn more

Sexually Transmitted Infections - Diseases

Any infection that is passed from one person to another through sexual contact is known as a sexually transmitted disease. Learn more

Torsion of the Appendix Testis

The testicular appendage is a small amount of normal tissue, usually located on the upper part of a testis, left over from the time of testicular fetal development. Learn more

Toxic Shock Syndrome

TSS is the description of a variety of clinical signs and symptoms that result from the toxins produced by a bacterial infection. TSS is rare, can affect anyone but is more common in children, the elderly and young women whose tampons may become infected with bacteria. Learn more

Transverse Vaginal Septum

A transverse vaginal septum is a birth defect occurring during development that results in a wall of scar-like tissue (septum) running horizontally across the vagina which blocks all or part of the vagina. Learn more


Trichomoniasis is a bacterial infection that is transmitted sexually. Both men and women can acquire the disease, but it usually only causes symptoms in women. Learn more

Unicornuate Uterus

A Unicornuate uterus is a rare congenital (before birth) abnormality that results from the two tubelike fetal structures that normally make up the uterus not forming in the correct way. Learn more

Vertical/Complete Vaginal Septum

A vertical, or complete vaginal septum, refers to a vagina which has a extra wall of tissue dividing the vagina into 2 separate cavities. Learn more


The vulva refers to the soft folds of skin on the outside of the vagina. When these become inflamed or irritated, this is known as vulvitis. Learn more