Conditions we Treat

The Sarcoma and Solid Tumor Program at Nicklaus Children's Hospital offers treatment for a broad range of tumors, including:


Carcinoma refers to a form of cancer that develops in the body’s epithelial tissue, if the cancer first forms in the glands that line your organs, this is known as adenocarcinoma.

Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma

ASPS is a very rare cancer that grows slowly from the connective tissue that usually occurs in children and young adults.

Aneurysmal Bone Cyst

When a blood-filled growth occurs in the bones of the arms, legs, skull, trunk or spine, then it might be an aneurysmal bone cyst.

Aneurysmal Bone Cyst

An aneurysmal bone cyst is a benign (non-cancerous) lesion that develops within the bone, fills with blood and can grow aggressively.

Angiomatoid Fibrous Histiocytoma

An angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma is a form of soft tissue tumor that typically affects the legs, feet, hands or arms.


An angiomyolipoma is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor that forms in one of the kidneys.

Benign and malignant head and neck tumors

Head and neck growths, tumors or masses in children are usually non-cancerous, but can spread to other parts of the body.

Carcinoid Tumor

Carcinoid tumors are a type of neuroendocrine tumor.


Cancers can be classified based on the type of tissue in which they start growing. In the case of carcinomas, they develop in epithelial tissue, which makes up the inner lining of most organs in the body, as well as the skin.


Chondroblastoma is a rare type of cartilage-producing benign tumor in children that often occurs in the ends of the long bones of the arms and legs.


A tumor that forms on or in the bones might be an chondroma.

Chondromyxoid Fibroma

Chondromyxoid fibroma is a benign tumor, which means it doesn’t lead to cancer. The tumor is made from cartilage and occurs near the ends of bones.


Chondrosarcoma is a form of cancer that can develop in the bones and soft tissues of the body, usually in people over 20 years of age. Mostly they begin in the cells in the joints that produce cartilage.

Clear Cell Sarcoma

Clear cell sarcoma is a form of cancer that develops in the soft tissues of the body.

Desmoid Fibromatosis

Desmoid fibromatosis is a condition that causes tumors known as desmoid tumors to grow in the connective tissue of the body, often in the legs, arms or abdomen.

Desmoid Tumor

A desmoid tumor is an ucommon tumor that frequently arises in muscles, it can also come from tissues, tendons, and ligaments.

Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor

Desmoplastic small round cell tumors are a rare form of sarcoma, a type of cancer, that frequently impacts the abdomen or the pelvic area.


Dysgerminomas are tumors that develop in the germ cells of the ovaries.


Enchondromas are usually non-cancerous cartilage tumors that are found in the marrow of a bone.

Epithelioid Sarcoma

Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare form of cancer that most commonly affects the arms and hands but can also be found in the legs, feet or main part of the body.

Ewing sarcoma

Ewing sarcoma is a rare type of cancer that usually develops in the bones or soft tissue around the bones (cartilage/nerves) of children 10-20 years of age.

Fibromyxoid Sarcoma

Fibromyxoid sarcoma is a rare form of cancer that most commonly affects the arms, hands, legs, feet or trunk.


Fibrosarcoma is a rare form of soft tissue cancer that occurs in infants and children 10-15 years of age, that starts in the fibrous tissue of the body but most commonly in the tendons at the ends of the limbs.


A ganglioneuroma is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor that typically develops in the autonomic nerve cells found throughout the body.

Germ Cell Tumor

The germ cells are the cells in the body that ultimately help women form eggs and men form sperm. When a tumor develops from these cells, it’s known as a germ cell tumor.

Giant Cell Tumor

A giant cell tumor is a non-cancerous tumor that grows at the ends of the body’s long bones.


A hepatoblastoma is a rare tumor that grows from the cells of the liver.

Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma is a serious and life-threatening form of liver cancer. It’s often related to other liver problems, and treatment is most successful if it is diagnosed early.

Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease of children in which a certain immature normal white blood type grows uncontrollably.


Leiomyosarcoma is a very rare type of soft tissue cancer that affects the smooth muscles of the body.


Liposarcoma is a cancer of fat cells. It can occur anywhere in the body, but is commonly found in the abdomen, thigh or shoulder area.

Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma

Malignant fibrous histiocytoma is a rare form of cancer in children known as a soft tissue sarcoma. These are tumors that affect muscle, bone or cartilage, or tissues that support/connect other organs.

Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor

When the sheath that protects the peripheral nerves develops cancer in its cells, this is known as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, or MPNST.


Melanocytes are the cells in the body’s skin that produce melanin. Melanin is the pigment that gives skin its color. When cancer develops in the melanocytes, it is known as melanoma.

Microcystic Adnexal Carcinoma

Microcystic adnexal carcinoma is a rare cancer that forms in the sweat glands.

Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma

Mucoepidermoid carcinomas are a distinct type of tumor that are one of the most common causes of salivary gland cancer, though they can also impact other areas of the body.

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 and 2

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is a disease that affects several glands throughout the body, including the thyroid, parathyroid and pituitary gland.

Myxoid Liposarcoma

Liposarcomas are a rare form of cancer that develop in the body’s fat cells. Myxoid liposarcoma is one subtype of liposarcoma.


Neuroblastoma is a form of cancer that primarily affects children. Among infants, it ranks as the most common form of cancer. It usually occurs in the adrenal glands above the kidneys, but can also start anyway along the nerves in the back.


Neurofibrosarcoma is a rare type of malignant cancer in children that develops in the cells of the sheath of the arms and legs, spreading along the nerves.

Non-Ossifying Fibroma

A NOF is a common, benign fibrous tissue tumor in boys and girls that is usually found in the thigh or shin bones but can occur in other bones.


An osteochondroma is a common non-cancerous tumor of bone that typically grows near the growth plate, the area of cartilage near the ends of the long bones.


Osteopetrosis keeps building up bone without the ability to remove the excess. Therefore people with the condition have bones that are very dense and more likely to fracture than normal bones.


Osteosarcoma is a very common type of bone cancer that affects older children and adolescents. It usually starts in the areas of long bones that are still growing, like at the ends of the thigh, shin or upper arm.


Pancreatoblastoma is rare form of cancer that develops in the lining of the pancreas.

Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common form of thyroid cancer and forms in the cells of the thyroid gland, a small organ located at the front of the neck.


A pheochromocytoma is a rare type of non-cancerous tumor in children that arises in the adrenal gland, which are organs that lie just above the kidneys that secretes a group of chemicals, or hormones, that are part of the body’s response to danger known as “flight or fight” response (e.g. they regulate heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, pupil size, change blood flow from skin to muscles among other functions..

Plexiform Fibrohistiocytic Neoplasm

Plexiform fibrohistiocytic neoplasms, also known as plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumors, are a rare form of cancer that impacts the skin and tissue beneath the skin.

Renal Cell Carcinoma

Renal cell carcinoma is the most common form of kidney cancer. This type of kidney cancer forms in the tubes that direct fluid in and out of the kidneys.

Rhabdoid Tumor

A rhabdoid tumor is a fast-growing cancer that most frequently develops in the body’s soft tissues, the kidneys or the brain and spinal cord.


Rhabdomyosarcoma is a type of soft tissue cancer that can affect any of the skeletal muscles, or voluntary muscles, of the body occurring in boys more often than girls.


A seminoma is a form of testicular cancer that impact the germ cells (reproductive cells) in men and boys.

Spindle Cell Sarcoma

A spindle cell sarcoma is a form of soft tissue cancer that most commonly affects the bones.

Synovial Chondromatosis

The synovial membrane is a thin layer of tissue that lines the part of a joint that acts as a shock absorber between joints of bones. When the synovium thickens and fragments break off, the pieces may grow, calcify and become loose in the joint. This is synovial chondromatosis.

Synovial sarcoma

Synovial sarcomas are a rare form of slow growing soft tissue cancer that commonly forms around the joints in the arms or legs in adolescent or young adults.

Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor

A tenosynovial giant cell tumor is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor that can impact the soft tissue around the joints of bones.


A teratoma is a fairly common congenital type of solid tumor that contains normal looking tissues like hair, teeth and bone (and very rarely whole organs).

Undifferentiated Embryonal Sarcoma of the Liver

Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver, or UESL for short, is a rare form of liver cancer that primarily affects children.

Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma

An undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma is a form of cancer that develops in the soft tissue of the body.

Wilms’ Tumor

Wilm's tumor is a rare type of cancer that starts in the kidney and occurs most often in children ages 3 or 4.

Yolk Sac Tumor with Mature Teratoma

A yolk sac tumor and a teratoma are both categorized as germ cell tumors, which means they develop in the reproductive cells of the body.