Conditions We Treat
Amplified Musculoskeletal Pain Syndrome
Amplified musculoskeletal pain syndrome is a condition that causes normal pain sensation to be stronger and more intense than usual. It occurs due to problems related to the brain and spinal cord and often occurs in children.
Learn more about Amplified Musculoskeletal Pain Syndrome.
Apraxia of Speech
Apraxia is a neurological (brain related) disorder in which children have difficulty with some muscle movements. There are a number of forms of apraxia- one form is called orofacial apraxia where children are unable to voluntarily move some face muscles or in another form, cannot voluntarily move arm or leg muscles. All may occur in a mild or severe form.
Learn more about Apraxia of Speech.
Arachnoid cysts are fluid filled sacs or cavities that appear on the arachnoid membrane and can present in many locations on the brain and/or spinal cord. Majority of these cysts are discovered incidentally and do not merit surgical intervention but rarely may cause headaches or progressive enlargement of the head.
Learn more about Arachnoid Cysts.
Arm spasticity refers to uncontrolled and abrupt movements known as spasms that frequently occur in the arms.
Learn more about Arm Spasticity.
Arterial Ischemic Stroke
Arteries are the blood vessels that carry blood, oxygen and nutrients to all tissues of the body. An ischemic stroke occurs when an artery supplying the brain is damaged, ruptures or is blocked, causing the flow of blood to be interrupted from reaching the brain. Strokes can occur at all ages.
Learn more about Arterial Ischemic Stroke.
Asperger's syndrome describes a group of symptoms in children who have difficulties with social, behavioral and communication skills who have only mildly abnormal/good language and cognitive skills with average/above average intelligence.
Learn more about Asperger's Syndrome.
Attention Deficit and Learning Disorders (ADHD)
Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADHD) is the most common behavioral disorder of childhood, affecting 3 to 7 percent of school-age children.
Learn more about Attention Deficit and Learning Disorders (ADHD).
Autism refers to a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that makes it difficult for a child to interact socially, communicate verbally and non-verbally and connect with people.
Learn more about Autism.
Bell’s palsy is a sudden unexplained episode of weakness or paralysis of part of the face muscles, usually on one side, that can occur at any age.
Learn more about Bell's Palsy.
Bethlem myopathy is a form of muscular dystrophy that causes joint stiffness and muscle weakness that gradually becomes worse over time. It often affects the feet, hands and elbows.
Learn more about Bethlem Myopathy.
Botulism is an illness caused by a toxin produced by bacteria called Clostridium botulinum that normally live in the soil, dust and cooked agricultural products.
Learn more about Botulism.
Brain Abscess/Subdural Empyema
Subdural empyema and brain abscess are serious infections of the brain where pus accumulates inside or around the brain, often as a consequence of sinusitis, ear infections, dental caries or even urine infections. These can result in severe headaches, drowsiness or seizures. An urgent intervention is often necessary. Hence a consultation or visit to the emergency room is recommended.
Learn more about Brain Abscess/Subdural Empyema.
The brain and its coverings can become infected by a wide variety of infections which include bacteria, viruses and uncommonly parasites and fungi.
Learn more about Brain Infections.
CDKL5 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase-Like 5) is a gene located on the X-chromosome. The CDKL5 gene is required to function normally for a normal brain to develop.
Learn more about CDKL5 Disorder.
Cerebral Palsy from Birth-Related Complications
Cerebral palsy is a condition that impacts the muscles, posture and movement. People with the disorder often have trouble moving or walking due to the limitations created by this condition. In many cases, complications that occur at birth can lead to cerebral palsy.
Learn more about Cerebral Palsy from Birth-Related Complications.
Cerebral Venous Thrombosis/Cerebral Sinovenous Thrombosis
Cerebral venous thrombosis is an increasingly recognized cause of stroke in a newborn baby, or children, about 40% of childhood CSVT’s.
Learn more about Cerebral Venous Thrombosis/Cerebral Sinovenous Thrombosis.
Please see Syringomyelia for further information.
Choroid Plexus Brain Tumor
The choroid plexus is the tissue that lies in the cavities of the brain (called ventricles and there are four of them) that creates the fluid (cerebrospinal fluid) which surrounds and cushions the brain and spinal cord.
Learn more about Choroid Plexus Brain Tumor.
Cognitive and Perceptual Deficits
Cognition is the mental process that allows us to acquire information and knowledge. Perceptual deficits are one of the types of learning disorder. Both may be mild, moderate or severe.
Learn more about Cognitive and Perceptual Deficits.
Congenital abnormalities of the Central Nervous System (CNS)
Congenital abnormalities of the CNS are birth defects of the physical structure of the brain or spinal cord that occur during fetal intrauterine growth.
Learn more about Congenital abnormalities of the Central Nervous System (CNS).
The myelin sheath is a protective fatty material that wraps, protects and insulates the nerve fibers of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves.
Learn more about Demyelinating Disease.
Whenever a child fails to reach a set of developmental milestone for physical/motor, in language and communication, social, or behavioral function, and/or cognitive ability at their expected time, it's known as developmental delay.
Learn more about Developmental Delays.
Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder characterized by extreme thirst and the passing of large amounts of dilute urine.
Learn more about Diabetes Insipidus.
Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG)
Glial tissue are cells of the brain that protects and supports the neurons. Tumors that start in the glial tissue at the base of the brain in the brainstem area (which controls breathing, heart rate and blood pressure plus other functions) called the Pons, just above the back of the neck, are called diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas.
Learn more about Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG).
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Muscular dystrophy is a genetic condition characterized by progressive muscle weakness, difficulties with movement and other symptoms. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is known for getting worse much more.
Learn more about Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.
Dysarthria is a group of speech disorders that arise from problems of the nerves and/or muscles that normally give rise to normal speech (that is the ability to breathe, phonate, articulate, with normal resonance, tone and/or rhythm). Dysarthria can vary in severity and has a variety of different causes.
Learn more about Dysarthria.
Childhood epilepsy is a brain disorder that causes an infant or a child to have repeated seizures over time. Some children may have difficulty in controlling the seizures in spite of being on multiple medications. These patients may be candidates for epilepsy surgery. All these patients should be evaluated in the multidisciplinary Epilepsy Clinic. After a thorough evaluation a surgical plan is formulated. The various surgeries include removal of involved brain or its destruction using a laser technology (Visualase®).
Learn more about Epilepsy.
Erb’s palsy is a form of brachial nerve palsy that occurs in newborn babies which is characterized by weakness, loss of feeling and difficulty moving the affected arm.
Learn more about Erb's Palsy.
Facial Motion Disorders
In order to make facial expressions, (e.g. smiling or closing one's eyes) the brain sends a signal to the muscles of our face through the 7th cranial nerve called the facial nerve.
Learn more about Facial Motion Disorders.
Facial Nerve Paralysis
Please see Facial Motion Disorders for further information.
Fetal CNS Abnormalities
Please see Congenital Abnormalities of the Central Nervous System for further information.
Fibrous dysplasia is an uncommon bone disease frequently affecting one bone (the skull or long bones of the arms and legs)
Learn more about Fibrous Dysplasia.
Fragile X Syndrome
Fragile X syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation (change) on the X chromosome that affects brain development and function.
Learn more about Fragile X Syndrome.
Ataxia is a medical term for the loss of coordination and balance. Friedreich’s ataxia is a common form of ataxia that also impacts the nervous system and heart.
Learn more about Friedreich's Ataxia.
Glioblastoma multiforme are high-grade 1V, aggressively growing, cancerous glial tumors which infiltrate into healthy adjacent brain tissue, frequently occurring in both boys and girls aged 5-10 years.
Learn more about Glioblastoma Multiforme.
Astrocytes are star-shaped cells that are part of a glial network of supportive and nourishing tissue within the brain. One rare form of malignant tumor that grows and infiltrates aggressively from these cells and which spreads over the top and throughout the brain is known as gliomatosis cerebri.
Learn more about Gliomatosis Cerebri.
Glucose Transporter Type 1 Deficiency
Glucose transporter type 1 is a rare genetic disorder where the protein that is necessary to carry glucose from the bloodstream into the brain is lacking.
Learn more about Glucose Transporter Type 1 Deficiency.
When the body’s own immune system mistakenly attacks the nerves of the body, usually following a gastrointestinal or respiratory tract infection, the group of diseases that result is known as Guillain-Barre syndrome.
Learn more about Guillain-Barre Syndrome.
Any type of pain in the head, neck, and face can be classified as a headache.
Learn more about Headaches.
Hemorrhage means bleeding. Bleeding into the brain occurs after either a clot forms in a vessel carrying blood to it or a brain blood vessel breaks because of an abnormality or disease of the blood vessel.
Learn more about Hemorrhagic Stroke.
Hereditary neuropathy is a medical term that refers to a group of different inherited medical conditions that cause progressive loss of function (and sensation) from abnormally working nerves that carry signals from the spinal cord to muscles.
Learn more about Hereditary Neuropathy.
Please see Hemorrhagic Stroke for further information.
“Ischemia” is the lack of blood supply to an organ resulting in not enough oxygen being delivered to meet the needs of the organ to function normally. When this happens to the blood supply of the brain it's called an “ischemic stroke”.
Learn more about Ischemic Stroke.
Landau-Kleffner syndrome is a rare neurological disorder that causes sudden or gradual development of language difficulties and, in some cases recurrent seizures in children, starting between the ages of 2 and 8 years.
Learn more about Landau-Kleffner Syndrome.
Learning Disorders and Disabilities
Learning disabilities and disorders are brain based processing difficulties which interfere with learning skills like reading, writing and doing mathematics. Children with learning disorders usually have normal intellectual ability.
Learn more about Learning Disorders and Disabilities.
Leukodystrophy refers to a group of rare progressive diseases that affect the white matter of the brain (myelin), causing a slowing or blockage in brain signals.
Learn more about Leukodystrophy.
Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy
Muscular dystrophy is a chronic disease that causes gradual weakness and loss of muscle over time.
Learn more about Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy.
When a newborn baby or an infant's head is found to be much smaller than normal for its age, the condition is known as microcephaly.
Learn more about Microcephaly.
Moyamoya disease is a rare disease, frequently seen in children, that causes the blood vessels in the brain to narrow. There are many causes for this disease and treatment is tailored according to the severity of the disease.
Learn more about Moyamoya Disease.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Multiple sclerosis (MS), is an autoimmune disease where the body’s immune system, attacks and inflames the central nervous system and organs.
Learn more about Multiple Sclerosis (MS).
Myasthenia Gravis in Children
MG in a rare chronic autoimmune disease in children of all ages, it is characterized by muscle weakness of varying degree in many different areas of the body, it commonly affects the eyes, mouth, throat, arms and legs.
Learn more about Myasthenia Gravis in Children.
Nervous System Disorders
Any condition that adversely affects the function of any part of the nervous system is called a nervous system disorder.
Learn more about Nervous System Disorders.
Neuromyelitis optica is a rare and severe disease of the central nervous system that primarily affects the eye nerves and spinal cord.
Learn more about Neuromyelitis Optica.
Neuropsychiatric disorder is a blanket medical term that encompasses a broad range of medical conditions that involve both neurology and psychiatry. Common neuropsychiatric disorders include seizures, attention deficits, cognitive deficits, palsies, uncontrolled anger, migraine headaches, addictions, eating disorders, depression, and anxiety and others.
Learn more about Neuropsychiatric Disorders.
The optic nerve is the nerve pathway that connects the eye to the brain, sending visual messages to the brain for interpretation. Optic neuritis is an inflammation of the optic nerve, which becomes swollen, doesn’t function normally and results in loss of vision. It can occur in one or both eyes.
Learn more about Optic Neuritis.
Oromandibular Limb Hypoplasia Syndrome
This syndrome is a very rare group of a number of conditions all of whom have congenital (occuring before birth) malformations of the tongue, upper and lower jaw (maxilla and mandible), with some having variable limb abnormalities as well.
Learn more about Oromandibular Limb Hypoplasia Syndrome.
Peripheral Nerve Injuries
Please see Brachial Plexus Injuries for further information.
The peripheral nerves are the vast network of nerves that transmits messages from the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) to the rest of the body. When these nerves don’t function normally it is known as a peripheral neuropathy.
Learn more about Peripheral Neuropathy.
Periventricular leukomalacia is a brain disorder occurring in prematurely born babies which is characterized by brain damage with softening and death of the inner part of the brain.
Learn more about Periventricular Leukomalacia.
It is a condition characterized by a flattening of the skull on one side or on the back of the head.
Learn more about Plagiocephaly.
Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma is a rare brain tumor that grows in the upper parts of the brain (cerebral hemispheres) from brain cells called astrocytes (a type of glioma), which form the brain’s supportive and nutritional network.
Learn more about Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma.
Pseudotumor cerebri is a condition characterized by headaches and visual disturbances without an underlying brain tumor. While it is most commonly seen in young adults, it may be seen in children also. The causes may include obesity, certain drugs amongst others. The treatment options include weight loss, medications and in some instances, optic nerve decompression or CSF diversion.
Learn more about Pseudotumor Cerebri.
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Deficiency
Depending on the availability of food, the body either uses glucose produced by the breakdown of ingested carbohydrates, when food is plentiful, or fat when food is limited, to produce the energy cells need to function. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of three enzymes is the bridge that gives the body the flexibility to switch from one source of energy to the other. PDC deficiency is a disorder resulting from a lack of one of the three enzymes.
Learn more about Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.
Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy
Reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a general pain disorder that can affect various regions of the body. It is poorly understood but seems to stem from the autonomic nervous system, which is the part of the nervous system that handles involuntary functions like heart rate and blood pressure.
Learn more about Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy.
A seizure is a sudden abnormal burst of electrical activity in one or more parts of the brain that interrupt the normal brain signals and result in a wide variety of symptoms such as loss of conciousness and uncontrollable muscle spasms.
Learn more about Seizures.
Sensory Motor Deficits
Sensory and motor development is the process whereby a child gains use and coordination of his/her muscles of the trunk, arms, legs and hands (motor development), and begins to experience (through sensory input) the environment through sight, sounds, smell, taste and hearing.
Learn more about Sensory Motor Deficits.
Two out of three children under the age of 10 years have some type of sleep problem. Sleep problems can be divided into two broad groups: dyssomnias and parasomnias.
Learn more about Sleep Disorders.
Syringomyelia is a rare chronic condition where fluid accumulates (syrinx) within the spinal cord. The most common cause of syringomyelia is Chiari malformation. Other conditions that may cause syringomyelia include spinal cord tumors, tethered spinal cord or shunt malfunction.
Learn more about Syringomyelia.
A tectal glioma ( from a type of glial cell that nourishes and supports other brain cells) is a slow growing, generally benign (non spreading), brain tumor in children 3-16 years of age, situated in the upper portion or roof of the brain stem ( this area of the brain controls important body functions like breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure).
Learn more about Tectal Gliomas.
Thalamic Astrocytoma and Hypothalamic Astrocytoma
An astrocytoma (a common type of glioma) is a form of brain cancer that starts in brain cells (astrocytes) that support and nourish other brain cells.
Learn more about Thalamic Astrocytoma and Hypothalamic Astrocytoma.
Tuberous sclerosis is a rare genetic disease, often diagnosed during infancy or childhood, that causes benign tumors to grow in many parts of the body, including the brain, heart, kidneys, lungs and skin.
Learn more about Tuberous Sclerosis.
Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy
Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy is a form of muscular dystrophy that causes joint stiffness and muscle weakness that gradually becomes worse over time.
Learn more about Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy.
The brain floats in the CSF fluid surrounding it, and the CSF circulates through the ventricular and the spaces around the brain and the spinal cord, constantly being produced and absorbed.
Ventriculomegaly is a congenital (before birth) condition in which the ventricles of a fetus/baby are abnormally large.
Learn more about Ventriculomegaly.