Neurological Conditions We Treat
Amplified Musculoskeletal Pain Syndrome
Amplified musculoskeletal pain syndrome is a condition that causes normal pain sensation to be stronger and more intense than usual. It occurs due to problems related to the brain and spinal cord and often occurs in children.
Apraxia of Speech
Apraxia is a brain disorder in which children have difficulty with some muscle movements, sometimes in their face, other times in their arms and legs.
Arachnoid cysts are fluid filled sacs or cavities that appear on the arachnoid membrane and can present in many locations on the brain and/or spinal cord.
Arterial Ischemic Stroke
An ischemic stroke occurs when an artery supplying the brain is damaged, ruptures or is blocked, causing the flow of blood to be interrupted from reaching the brain. Strokes can occur at all ages.
A group of symptoms in children who have difficulties with social, behavioral and communication skills who have only mildly abnormal language and cognitive skills with average or above average intelligence.
Attention Deficit and Learning Disorders (ADHD)
Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADHD) is the most common behavioral disorder of childhood, affecting 3 to 7 percent of school-age children.
Autism refers to a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that makes it difficult for a child to interact socially, communicate verbally and non-verbally and connect with people.
Bell’s palsy is a sudden unexplained episode of weakness or paralysis of part of the face muscles, usually on one side, that can occur at any age.
Bethlem myopathy is a form of muscular dystrophy that causes joint stiffness and muscle weakness that gradually becomes worse over time. It often affects the feet, hands and elbows.
Botulism is an illness caused by a toxin produced by bacteria called Clostridium botulinum that normally live in the soil, dust and cooked agricultural products.
Brain Abscess/Subdural Empyema
Subdural empyema and brain abscess are serious infections of the brain where pus accumulates inside or around the brain. An urgent intervention is often necessary.
The brain and its coverings can become infected by a wide variety of infections which include bacteria, viruses and uncommonly parasites and fungi.
CDKL5 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase-Like 5) is a gene located on the X-chromosome. The CDKL5 gene is required to function normally for a normal brain to develop.
Cerebral Palsy from Birth-Related Complications
Cerebral palsy is a condition that impacts the muscles, posture and movement. People with the disorder often have trouble moving or walking due to the limitations created by this condition. In many cases, complications that occur at birth can lead to cerebral palsy.
Cerebral Venous Thrombosis (CSVT)
Cerebral venous thrombosis is an increasingly recognized cause of stroke in a newborn baby, or children, about 40% of childhood CSVT’s.
Please see Syringomyelia for further information.
Choroid Plexus Brain Tumor
In children, tumors of the choroid plexus are rare, overwhelmingly benign papillomas Grade 1 that generally occur in young infants.
Cognitive and Perceptual Deficits
Cognition is the mental process that allows us to acquire information and knowledge. Perceptual deficits are one of the types of learning disorder. Both may be mild, moderate or severe.
Congenital abnormalities of the Central Nervous System (CNS)
Congenital abnormalities of the CNS are birth defects of the physical structure of the brain or spinal cord that occur during fetal intrauterine growth.
Any disease that causes damage to the myelin sheath that slows or stops nerve signals is called a demyelinating disease.
Whenever a child fails to reach a set of developmental milestone for physical/motor, in language and communication, social, or behavioral function, and/or cognitive ability at their expected time, it's known as developmental delay.
Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder characterized by extreme thirst and the passing of large amounts of dilute urine.
Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG)
Tumors that start in the glial tissue at the base of the brain in the brainstem area called the Pons, just above the back of the neck, are called diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas.
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Muscular dystrophy is a genetic condition characterized by progressive muscle weakness, difficulties with movement and other symptoms. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is known for getting worse much more.
Dysarthria is a group of speech disorders that arise from problems of the nerves and/or muscles that normally give rise to normal speech.
Childhood epilepsy is a brain disorder that causes an infant or a child to have repeated seizures over time. Seizures, also known as convulsions, are episodes in which brain activity is disturbed, causing changes in attention or behavior.
Erb's palsy is a form of brachial nerve palsy that occurs in newborn babies which is characterized by weakness, loss of feeling and difficulty moving the affected arm.
Facial Motion Disorders
A fairly large number of different conditions affect facial muscle movement which may be absent, weak or abnormal facial motility.
Facial Nerve Paralysis
Please see Facial Motion Disorders for further information.
Fibrous dysplasia is an uncommon bone disease frequently affecting one bone (the skull or long bones of the arms and legs)
Fragile X Syndrome
Fragile X syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation on the X chromosome that affects brain development and function. It is the most common inherited cause of mental retardation and autism.
Ataxia is a medical term for the loss of coordination and balance. Friedreich’s ataxia is a common form of ataxia that also impacts the nervous system and heart.
Glioblastoma multiforme are high-grade 1V, aggressively growing, cancerous glial tumors which infiltrate into healthy adjacent brain tissue, frequently occurring in both boys and girls aged 5-10 years.
A rare form of malignant tumor that grows and infiltrates astrocyte cells and which spreads over the top and throughout the brain.
Glucose Transporter Type 1 Deficiency
Glucose transporter type 1 is a rare genetic disorder where the protein that is necessary to carry glucose from the bloodstream into the brain is lacking.
When the body’s own immune system mistakenly attacks the nerves of the body, usually following a gastrointestinal or respiratory tract infection, the group of diseases that result is known as Guillain-Barre syndrome.
Bleeding into the brain (also known as an intracerebral hemorrhage) occurs after either a clot forms in a vessel carrying blood to it or a brain blood vessel breaks because of an abnormality or disease of the blood vessel.
Hereditary neuropathy is a medical term that refers to a group of different inherited medical conditions that cause progressive loss of function (and sensation) from abnormally working nerves that carry signals from the spinal cord to muscles.
“Ischemia” is the lack of blood supply to an organ resulting in not enough oxygen being delivered to meet the needs of the organ to function normally. When this happens to the blood supply of the brain it's called an “ischemic stroke”.
Landau-Kleffner syndrome is a rare neurological disorder that causes sudden or gradual development of language difficulties and, in some cases recurrent seizures in children, starting between the ages of 2 and 8 years.
Learning Disorders and Disabilities
Learning disabilities and disorders are brain based processing difficulties which interfere with learning skills like reading, writing and doing mathematics. Children with learning disorders usually have normal intellectual ability.
Leukodystrophy refers to a group of rare progressive diseases that affect the white matter of the brain (myelin), causing a slowing or blockage in brain signals.
Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy
Muscular dystrophy is a chronic disease that causes gradual weakness and loss of muscle over time.
When a newborn baby or an infant's head is found to be much smaller than normal for its age, the condition is known as microcephaly.
Migraines are a type of intense headache. They can last from hours to days and be so severe that it causes disabling symptoms. About 5% of children experience migraine headaches by the age of 15.
Moyamoya disease is a rare disease, frequently seen in children, that causes the blood vessels in the brain to narrow. There are many causes for this disease and treatment is tailored according to the severity of the disease.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Multiple sclerosis (MS), is an autoimmune disease where the body’s immune system, attacks and inflames the central nervous system and organs.
Myasthenia Gravis (MG)
MG in a rare chronic autoimmune disease in children of all ages, it is characterized by muscle weakness of varying degree in many different areas of the body, it commonly affects the eyes, mouth, throat, arms and legs.
Nervous System Disorders
Any condition that adversely affects the function of any part of the nervous system is called a nervous system disorder.
Neuromyelitis optica is a rare and severe disease of the central nervous system that primarily affects the eye nerves and spinal cord.
Neuropsychiatric disorder is a blanket medical term that encompasses a broad range of medical conditions that involve both neurology and psychiatry.
The optic nerve is the nerve pathway that connects the eye to the brain, sending visual messages to the brain for interpretation. Optic neuritis is an inflammation of the optic nerve, which becomes swollen, doesn’t function normally and results in loss of vision. It can occur in one or both eyes.
Oromandibular Limb Hypoplasia Syndrome
This syndrome is a very rare group of a number of conditions all of whom have congenital malformations of the tongue, upper and lower jaw, with some having variable limb abnormalities as well.
Peripheral Nerve Injuries
Please see Brachial Plexus Injuries for further information.
Periventricular leukomalacia is a brain disorder occurring in prematurely born babies which is characterized by brain damage with softening and death of the inner part of the brain.
Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma is a rare brain tumor that grows in the upper parts of the brain from brain cells called astrocytes. Very rarely it may develop into cancer.
Pseudotumor cerebri is a condition characterized by headaches and visual disturbances without an underlying brain tumor.
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Deficiency
he pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of three enzymes is the bridge that gives the body the flexibility to switch from one source of energy to the other. PDC deficiency is a disorder resulting from a lack of one of the three enzymes.
Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy
Reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a general pain disorder that can affect various regions of the body. It is poorly understood but seems to stem from the autonomic nervous system, which is the part of the nervous system that handles involuntary functions like heart rate and blood pressure.
A seizure is a sudden abnormal burst of electrical activity in one or more parts of the brain that interrupt the normal brain signals and result in a wide variety of symptoms such as loss of conciousness and uncontrollable muscle spasms.
Sensory Motor Deficits
Sensory deficits is a general medical terms that encompasses a wide arrange of symptoms which can include difficulties with the senses (like touch or taste) and/or motor coordination (sitting, walking, grasping objects).
Two out of three children under the age of 10 years have some type of sleep problem. Sleep problems can be divided into two broad groups: dyssomnias and parasomnias.
Syringomyelia is a rare chronic condition where fluid accumulates (syrinx) within the spinal cord. The most common cause of syringomyelia is Chiari malformation. Other conditions that may cause syringomyelia include spinal cord tumors, tethered spinal cord or shunt malfunction.
A tectal glioma is a slow growing, generally benign, brain tumor in children 3-16 years of age.
Thalamic Astrocytoma and Hypothalamic Astrocytoma
An astrocytoma, a common type of glioma, is a form of brain cancer that starts in brain cells, known as astrocytes, that support and nourish other brain cells.
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex
Tuberous sclerosis is a rare genetic disease, often diagnosed during infancy or childhood, that causes non-cancerous tumors to grow in many parts of the body, including the brain, heart, kidneys, lungs and skin.
Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy
Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy is a form of muscular dystrophy that causes joint stiffness and muscle weakness that gradually becomes worse over time.
Upper extremity spasticity (arm & hand spasticity)
Upper extremity spasticity refers to increased muscle tone and hyperactive reflexes in the arm. It is usually due to a problem with motor nerves in the brain, and can be caused by cerebral palsy, stroke or traumatic brain injury.
Ventriculomegaly is a congenital condition in which the ventricles of a fetus/baby are abnormally large.