Conditions We Treat

Amplified Musculoskeletal Pain Syndrome

Amplified musculoskeletal pain syndrome is a condition that causes normal pain sensation to be stronger and more intense than usual. It occurs due to problems related to the brain and spinal cord and often occurs in children. Learn more

Apraxia of Speech

Apraxia is a neurological (brain related) disorder in which children have difficulty with some muscle movements. There are a number of forms of apraxia- one form is called orofacial apraxia where children are unable to voluntarily move some face muscles or in another form, cannot voluntarily move arm or leg muscles. All may occur in a mild or severe form. Learn more

Arachnoid Cysts

Arachnoid cysts are fluid filled sacs or cavities that appear on the arachnoid membrane and can present in many locations on the brain and/or spinal cord. Majority of these cysts are discovered incidentally and do not merit surgical intervention but rarely may cause headaches or progressive enlargement of the head. Learn more

Arm Spasticity

Arm spasticity refers to uncontrolled and abrupt movements known as spasms that frequently occur in the arms. Learn more

Arterial Ischemic Stroke

Arteries are the blood vessels that carry blood, oxygen and nutrients to all tissues of the body. An ischemic stroke occurs when an artery supplying the brain is damaged, ruptures or is blocked, causing the flow of blood to be interrupted from reaching the brain. Strokes can occur at all ages. Learn more

Asperger's Syndrome

A group of symptoms in children who have difficulties with social, behavioral and communication skills who have only mildly abnormal language and cognitive skills with average or above average intelligence. Learn more

Attention Deficit and Learning Disorders (ADHD)

Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADHD) is the most common behavioral disorder of childhood, affecting 3 to 7 percent of school-age children. Learn more

Autism

Autism refers to a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that makes it difficult for a child to interact socially, communicate verbally and non-verbally and connect with people. Learn more

Bell's Palsy

Bell’s palsy is a sudden unexplained episode of weakness or paralysis of part of the face muscles, usually on one side, that can occur at any age. Learn more

Bethlem Myopathy

Bethlem myopathy is a form of muscular dystrophy that causes joint stiffness and muscle weakness that gradually becomes worse over time. It often affects the feet, hands and elbows. Learn more

Botulism

Botulism is an illness caused by a toxin produced by bacteria called Clostridium botulinum that normally live in the soil, dust and cooked agricultural products. Learn more

Brain Abscess/Subdural Empyema

Subdural empyema and brain abscess are serious infections of the brain where pus accumulates inside or around the brain, often as a consequence of sinusitis, ear infections, dental caries or even urine infections. These can result in severe headaches, drowsiness or seizures. An urgent intervention is often necessary. Hence a consultation or visit to the emergency room is recommended. Learn more

Brain Infections

The brain and its coverings can become infected by a wide variety of infections which include bacteria, viruses and uncommonly parasites and fungi. Learn more

CDKL5 Disorder

CDKL5 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase-Like 5) is a gene located on the X-chromosome. The CDKL5 gene is required to function normally for a normal brain to develop. Learn more

Cerebral Palsy from Birth-Related Complications

Cerebral palsy is a condition that impacts the muscles, posture and movement. People with the disorder often have trouble moving or walking due to the limitations created by this condition. In many cases, complications that occur at birth can lead to cerebral palsy. Learn more

Cerebral Venous Thrombosis/Cerebral Sinovenous Thrombosis

Cerebral venous thrombosis is an increasingly recognized cause of stroke in a newborn baby, or children, about 40% of childhood CSVT’s. Learn more

Chiari Malformation

Please see Syringomyelia for further information.

Choroid Plexus Brain Tumor

The choroid plexus is the tissue that lies in the cavities of the brain (called ventricles and there are four of them) that creates the fluid (cerebrospinal fluid) which surrounds and cushions the brain and spinal cord. Learn more

Cognitive and Perceptual Deficits

Cognition is the mental process that allows us to acquire information and knowledge. Perceptual deficits are one of the types of learning disorder. Both may be mild, moderate or severe. Learn more

Congenital abnormalities of the Central Nervous System (CNS)

Congenital abnormalities of the CNS are birth defects of the physical structure of the brain or spinal cord that occur during fetal intrauterine growth. Learn more

Demyelinating Disease

The myelin sheath is a protective fatty material that wraps, protects and insulates the nerve fibers of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves. Learn more

Developmental Delays

Whenever a child fails to reach a set of developmental milestone for physical/motor, in language and communication, social, or behavioral function, and/or cognitive ability at their expected time, it's known as developmental delay. Learn more

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder characterized by extreme thirst and the passing of large amounts of dilute urine. Learn more

Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG)

Glial tissue are cells of the brain that protects and supports the neurons. Tumors that start in the glial tissue at the base of the brain in the brainstem area (which controls breathing, heart rate and blood pressure plus other functions) called the Pons, just above the back of the neck, are called diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. Learn more

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Muscular dystrophy is a genetic condition characterized by progressive muscle weakness, difficulties with movement and other symptoms. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is known for getting worse much more. Learn more

Dysarthria

Dysarthria is a group of speech disorders that arise from problems of the nerves and/or muscles that normally give rise to normal speech (that is the ability to breathe, phonate, articulate, with normal resonance, tone and/or rhythm). Dysarthria can vary in severity and has a variety of different causes. Learn more

Epilepsy

Childhood epilepsy is a brain disorder that causes an infant or a child to have repeated seizures over time. Some children may have difficulty in controlling the seizures in spite of being on multiple medications. These patients may be candidates for epilepsy surgery. All these patients should be evaluated in the multidisciplinary Epilepsy Clinic. After a thorough evaluation a surgical plan is formulated. The various surgeries include removal of involved brain or its destruction using a laser technology (Visualase®). Learn more

Erb's Palsy

Erb’s palsy is a form of brachial nerve palsy that occurs in newborn babies which is characterized by weakness, loss of feeling and difficulty moving the affected arm. Learn more

Facial Motion Disorders

In order to make facial expressions, (e.g. smiling or closing one's eyes) the brain sends a signal to the muscles of our face through the 7th cranial nerve called the facial nerve. Learn more

Facial Nerve Paralysis

Please see Facial Motion Disorders for further information.

Fetal CNS Abnormalities

Please see Congenital Abnormalities of the Central Nervous System for further information.

Fibrous Dysplasia

Fibrous dysplasia is an uncommon bone disease frequently affecting one bone (the skull or long bones of the arms and legs) Learn more

Fragile X Syndrome

Fragile X syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation (change) on the X chromosome that affects brain development and function. Learn more

Friedreich's Ataxia

Ataxia is a medical term for the loss of coordination and balance. Friedreich’s ataxia is a common form of ataxia that also impacts the nervous system and heart. Learn more

Glioblastoma Multiforme

Glioblastoma multiforme are high-grade 1V, aggressively growing, cancerous glial tumors which infiltrate into healthy adjacent brain tissue, frequently occurring in both boys and girls aged 5-10 years. Learn more

Gliomatosis Cerebri

Astrocytes are star-shaped cells that are part of a glial network of supportive and nourishing tissue within the brain. One rare form of malignant tumor that grows and infiltrates aggressively from these cells and which spreads over the top and throughout the brain is known as gliomatosis cerebri. Learn more

Glucose Transporter Type 1 Deficiency

Glucose transporter type 1 is a rare genetic disorder where the protein that is necessary to carry glucose from the bloodstream into the brain is lacking. Learn more

Guillain-Barre Syndrome

When the body’s own immune system mistakenly attacks the nerves of the body, usually following a gastrointestinal or respiratory tract infection, the group of diseases that result is known as Guillain-Barre syndrome. Learn more

Headaches

Any type of pain in the head, neck, and face can be classified as a headache. Learn more

Hemorrhagic Stroke

Hemorrhage means bleeding. Bleeding into the brain occurs after either a clot forms in a vessel carrying blood to it or a brain blood vessel breaks because of an abnormality or disease of the blood vessel. Learn more

Hereditary Neuropathy

Hereditary neuropathy is a medical term that refers to a group of different inherited medical conditions that cause progressive loss of function (and sensation) from abnormally working nerves that carry signals from the spinal cord to muscles. Learn more

Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Please see Hemorrhagic Stroke for further information.

Ischemic Stroke

“Ischemia” is the lack of blood supply to an organ resulting in not enough oxygen being delivered to meet the needs of the organ to function normally. When this happens to the blood supply of the brain it's called an “ischemic stroke”. Learn more

Landau-Kleffner Syndrome

Landau-Kleffner syndrome is a rare neurological disorder that causes sudden or gradual development of language difficulties and, in some cases recurrent seizures in children, starting between the ages of 2 and 8 years. Learn more

Learning Disorders and Disabilities

Learning disabilities and disorders are brain based processing difficulties which interfere with learning skills like reading, writing and doing mathematics. Children with learning disorders usually have normal intellectual ability. Learn more

Leukodystrophy

Leukodystrophy refers to a group of rare progressive diseases that affect the white matter of the brain (myelin), causing a slowing or blockage in brain signals. Learn more

Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy

Muscular dystrophy is a chronic disease that causes gradual weakness and loss of muscle over time. Learn more

Microcephaly

When a newborn baby or an infant's head is found to be much smaller than normal for its age, the condition is known as microcephaly. Learn more

Moyamoya Disease

Moyamoya disease is a rare disease, frequently seen in children, that causes the blood vessels in the brain to narrow. There are many causes for this disease and treatment is tailored according to the severity of the disease. Learn more

Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

Multiple sclerosis (MS), is an autoimmune disease where the body’s immune system, attacks and inflames the central nervous system and organs. Learn more

Myasthenia Gravis in Children

MG in a rare chronic autoimmune disease in children of all ages, it is characterized by muscle weakness of varying degree in many different areas of the body, it commonly affects the eyes, mouth, throat, arms and legs. Learn more

Nervous System Disorders

Any condition that adversely affects the function of any part of the nervous system is called a nervous system disorder. Learn more

Neuromyelitis Optica

Neuromyelitis optica is a rare and severe disease of the central nervous system that primarily affects the eye nerves and spinal cord. Learn more

Neuropsychiatric Disorders

Neuropsychiatric disorder is a blanket medical term that encompasses a broad range of medical conditions that involve both neurology and psychiatry. Learn more

Optic Neuritis

The optic nerve is the nerve pathway that connects the eye to the brain, sending visual messages to the brain for interpretation. Optic neuritis is an inflammation of the optic nerve, which becomes swollen, doesn’t function normally and results in loss of vision. It can occur in one or both eyes. Learn more

Oromandibular Limb Hypoplasia Syndrome

This syndrome is a very rare group of a number of conditions all of whom have congenital (occuring before birth) malformations of the tongue, upper and lower jaw (maxilla and mandible), with some having variable limb abnormalities as well. Learn more

Peripheral Nerve Injuries

Please see Brachial Plexus Injuries for further information.

Periventricular Leukomalacia

Periventricular leukomalacia is a brain disorder occurring in prematurely born babies which is characterized by brain damage with softening and death of the inner part of the brain. Learn more

Plagiocephaly

It is a condition characterized by a flattening of the skull on one side or on the back of the head. Learn more

Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma

Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma is a rare brain tumor that grows in the upper parts of the brain (cerebral hemispheres) from brain cells called astrocytes (a type of glioma), which form the brain’s supportive and nutritional network. Learn more

Pseudotumor Cerebri

Pseudotumor cerebri is a condition characterized by headaches and visual disturbances without an underlying brain tumor. While it is most commonly seen in young adults, it may be seen in children also. The causes may include obesity, certain drugs amongst others. The treatment options include weight loss, medications and in some instances, optic nerve decompression or CSF diversion. Learn more

Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Deficiency

Depending on the availability of food, the body either uses glucose produced by the breakdown of ingested carbohydrates, when food is plentiful, or fat when food is limited, to produce the energy cells need to function. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of three enzymes is the bridge that gives the body the flexibility to switch from one source of energy to the other. PDC deficiency is a disorder resulting from a lack of one of the three enzymes. Learn more

Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy

Reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a general pain disorder that can affect various regions of the body. It is poorly understood but seems to stem from the autonomic nervous system, which is the part of the nervous system that handles involuntary functions like heart rate and blood pressure. Learn more

Seizures

A seizure is a sudden abnormal burst of electrical activity in one or more parts of the brain that interrupt the normal brain signals and result in a wide variety of symptoms such as loss of conciousness and uncontrollable muscle spasms. Learn more

Sensory Motor Deficits

Sensory deficits is a general medical terms that encompasses a wide arrange of symptoms which can include difficulties with the senses (like touch or taste) and/or motor coordination (sitting, walking, grasping objects). Learn more

Sleep Disorders

Two out of three children under the age of 10 years have some type of sleep problem. Sleep problems can be divided into two broad groups: dyssomnias and parasomnias. Learn more

Syringomyelia

Syringomyelia is a rare chronic condition where fluid accumulates (syrinx) within the spinal cord. The most common cause of syringomyelia is Chiari malformation. Other conditions that may cause syringomyelia include spinal cord tumors, tethered spinal cord or shunt malfunction. Learn more

Tectal Gliomas

A tectal glioma ( from a type of glial cell that nourishes and supports other brain cells) is a slow growing, generally benign (non spreading), brain tumor in children 3-16 years of age, situated in the upper portion or roof of the brain stem ( this area of the brain controls important body functions like breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure). Learn more

Thalamic Astrocytoma and Hypothalamic Astrocytoma

An astrocytoma (a common type of glioma) is a form of brain cancer that starts in brain cells (astrocytes) that support and nourish other brain cells. Learn more

Tuberous Sclerosis

Tuberous sclerosis is a rare genetic disease, often diagnosed during infancy or childhood, that causes benign tumors to grow in many parts of the body, including the brain, heart, kidneys, lungs and skin. Learn more

Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy

Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy is a form of muscular dystrophy that causes joint stiffness and muscle weakness that gradually becomes worse over time. Learn more

Ventriculomegaly

The brain floats in the CSF fluid surrounding it, and the CSF circulates through the ventricular and the spaces around the brain and the spinal cord, constantly being produced and absorbed. Ventriculomegaly is a congenital (before birth) condition in which the ventricles of a fetus/baby are abnormally large. Learn more