Conditions We Treat
Pulmonary Atresia (PA)
Pulmonary atresia is a birth defect of the heart where the valve that controls the flow of blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs does not form, preventing blood picking up oxygen.
Learn more about Pulmonary Atresia (PA).
Adenoviruses are a group of common contagious viruses that most often infect children 6 months to 2 years, causing fever with mild respiratory (breathing) diseases like the common “cold”, infection of the eyes (conjunctivitis), croup, bronchitis, bronchiolitis with wheezing, and pneumonia (inflammation of the lungs) in spring/early summer or winter; and less commonly intestinal, genitourinary, or neurological disease.
Learn more about Adenovirus Infections.
The airway of the respiratory tract are the tubes that allow the passage of air from your mouth and nose to pass to the lungs with breathing.
Learn more about Airway Obstruction.
Asthma in Children
Asthma is a breathing disorder that involves the airways becoming inflamed.
Learn more about Asthma in Children.
Bronchiolitis is a common lung infection/inflammation affecting the small tubes to the lungs which usually affects children younger than 2 years of age, and which sometimes results in their hospitalization.
Learn more about Bronchiolitis.
Bronchitis is a respiratory infection where there is inflammation of the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles.
Learn more about Bronchitis.
Please see Airway Obstruction for further information.
When a fetus develops a cystic piece of nonfunctioning abnormal lung tissue either within a lung (intralobar sequestration) or next to it (extralobar- more common in boys) that is not connected to the body’s airways, its known as bronchopulmonary sequestration.
Learn more about Bronchopulmonary Sequestration.
Choanal atresia occurs when a newborn’s nasal passage is blocked at the junction between the back of the nose and the throat.
Learn more about Choanal Atresia.
It’s a disabling and complex condition that can be difficult to diagnose and treat, occurring much more commonly in girls than in boys. It may last a long time.
Learn more about Chronic Fatigue.
Chronic Lung Disease
Chronic lung disease is the term used for long term breathing problems that can occur after birth from lung injury, usually in very prematurely born infants.
Learn more about Chronic Lung Disease.
Complete Tracheal Rings
The trachea is the windpipe, and trachea rings are rings of cartilage that enhance the structure of the trachea and prevent it from collapsing. Normally, tracheal rings are C-shaped. But complete tracheal rings have an O-shape that can lead to complications.
Learn more about Complete Tracheal Rings.
Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation
Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation is one or more benign (non-cancerous) lumps (masses) or cysts of abnormal lung tissue usually found in one part of a lung that is present at birth. They can range from small to very large in size when they then may cause significant complications during fetal intrauterine life (10%).
Learn more about Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation.
Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation (CPAM)
CPAM is one or more benign (non-cancerous) lumps (masses) or cysts of abnormal lung tissue usually prenatally diagnosed with US during pregnancy.
Learn more about Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation (CPAM).
Cough is a reflex that protects your child’s breathing passages by removing mucus, irritating substances and infections by the forceful expulsion of air from the lungs.
Learn more about Cough.
Croup refers to a contagious infection of the upper breathing passages that irritates, inflames, swells and obstructs the upper airways of babies and young children, between the ages of 3 months and 5 years.
Learn more about Croup.
A bluish tinge of the lips, tongue, nail beds or skin is called cyanosis. There are 2 types: Central cyanosis and Acrocyanosis. Central cyanosis occurs because of a lack of oxygen in the red cells of blood and is never normal. Acrocyanosis is usually normal in babies and occurs when the extremities (hands and feet are cold), appear blue but not the lips, or tongue which normally appear pink in color.
Learn more about Cyanosis.
Cystic Lung Disease
When abnormal growths known as cysts develop in your lungs, this is known as cystic lung disease. There are many different types of cystic lung disease that can vary in presentation and severity.
Learn more about Cystic Lung Disease.
The nostrils and two nasal passages within the nose are separated by a thin wall called the nasal septum. When this septum is out of place, it can make one nasal passage smaller and cause nasal congestion with difficulty breathing. This is known as deviated septum.
Learn more about Deviated Septum.
The pleura are the smooth coverings between the lungs and the chest wall. Usually they are in close contact with only a small space and a little lubricating fluid between them (pleural space). When this space fills with pus, it’s known as an empyema.
Learn more about Empyema.
The epiglottis is a small flap of tissue that covers the windpipe and directs food to the esophagus. When the epiglottis swells and prevents air from flowing into the lungs, this is known as epiglottitis. It can be life threatening.
Learn more about Epiglottitis.
When a fetus’s esophagus, the tube that carries food to the stomach, does not develop correctly, the defect is known as esophageal atresia.
Learn more about Esophageal Atresia.
Normally, the pulmonary artery comes off the right ventricle of the heart and splits into two distinct branches to carry blood to the lungs. With this very rare heart abnormality (hemitruncus), the main pulmonary artery and one branch, typically the left, are found in the correct position, however the right one comes out of the ascending aorta.
Learn more about Hemitruncus.
Hyaline Membrane Disease
Please see Respiratory Distress Syndrome for further information.
Influenza is a common illness characterized by symptoms like cough, fever and aches and pains. It frequently occurs during the winter months. Flu is the common term for influenza.
Learn more about Influenza.
Interstitial Lung Disease
Childhood Interstitial lung disease is a broad term that applies to a rare complex group of different conditions in children (mostly infants) that primarily share a common abnormality of the air sacs and the scar like tissue that surrounds them, leading to difficulty in getting oxygen to the tissues and removing the carbon dioxide produced by them during metabolism.
Learn more about Interstitial Lung Disease.
When the body develops normally, the larynx (voice box) sits above the trachea (windpipe), right next to the esophagus. If a laryngeal cleft is present, there’s a gap between the larynx and esophagus that can allow food or liquids to enter the trachea.
Learn more about Laryngeal Cleft.
Laryngeal papilloma is a disease that leads to wart-like growths on the larynx, or voice box. These are non-cancerous, but they can grow quickly and tend to recur even after being removed.
Learn more about Laryngeal Papilloma.
Myasthenia Gravis in Children
MG in a rare chronic autoimmune disease in children of all ages, it is characterized by muscle weakness of varying degree in many different areas of the body, it commonly affects the eyes, mouth, throat, arms and legs.
Learn more about Myasthenia Gravis in Children.
Pertussis is a very contagious bacterial disease that affects all ages but is particularly worrying in infants < 1 year of age.
Learn more about Pertussis.
Pneumonia is a type of lung infection/inflammation which may occur at any age though most often in infants and young children.
Learn more about Pneumonia.
The pleura are two membranes, (with minimal space between them - the pleura cavity, containing a small amount of lubricating fluid), that lie between the lung and the chest wall. A pneumothorax is air in the pleural cavity. Air leaks into the pleural space can occur suddenly or gradually and may be simple (without buildup of significant pressure but with some stable collapse of the lung) or complicated (from air continuing to leak into the pleural space causing increasing lung collapse -called a tension pneumothorax, with further chest problems).
Learn more about Pneumothorax.
Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia
Cilia are hair-like structures in the airways that work together to keep the airways clean of dust, debris and foreign contaminants. In primary ciliary dyskinesia, the cilia are irregularly shaped and don’t function properly, which can lead to a number of complications.
Learn more about Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia.
Learn more about Pulmonary Atresia.
Hypertension means high blood pressure, but in the case of pulmonary hypertension, the high pressure affects the pulmonary arteries that take blood from the heart to the lungs.
Learn more about Pulmonary Hypertension.
Pulmonary hypoplasia is a rare birth defect where there is incomplete development of lung tissue/blood vessels in one or both lungs, not allowing the baby to breathe normally. It may be Primary, or Secondary to another problem like congenital diaphragmatic hernia, fluid around the lungs (pleural effusions) or problems associated with the fetus making urine (resulting in decreased amniotic fluid- oligohydramnios). It is often associated with heart, gut, genitourinary and bone malformations.
Learn more about Pulmonary Hypoplasia.
The pulmonary valve controls the flow of blood from the heart out to the lungs. When this valve leaks, it allows blood to flow backward into the heart before it can travel to the lungs. This leak is known as pulmonary regurgitation.
Learn more about Pulmonary Regurgitation.
Pulmonary stenosis is usually a congenital heart defect, which means that babies are born with it.
Learn more about Pulmonary Stenosis.
Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis
Please see Laryngeal Papilloma for further information.
Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Respiratory distress syndrome is one of the most common clinical conditions involving the lungs seen in premature babies. It involves breathing difficulties in the babies, as well as other potential complications.
Learn more about Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
Respiratory Syncytial Virus
RSV is a group of medium sized RNA viruses each containing many nuclei which frequently infects the respiratory tract of young children.
Learn more about Respiratory Syncytial Virus.
Sarcoidosis is a rare chronic inflammatory disease which results in granulomas that can usually affects the skin, joints, eyes, lungs, lymph nodes in children.
Learn more about Sarcoidosis.
Sinuses are air-filled cavities. There are four located in the skull; behind the cheeks of the face (maxillary; present at birth), around the bridge of the nose (ethmoid; present at birth), forehead (frontal; develops around 7 years of age), and deep in the face behind the nose (sphenoid; develops during adolescence). When these cavities become infected, the condition is known as sinusitis.
Learn more about Sinusitis.
Pneumothorax is defined as the sudden appearance of air in the chest outside of a lung (between the lung and the chest wall).
Learn more about Spontaneous Pneumothorax.
Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn
Transient tachypnea of the newborn is a self-limiting, temporary breathing problem that occurs in full term (and near full term premature) newborn babies starting shortly after birth and lasting up to 3 days.
Learn more about Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn.