Pediatric Cardiovascular Treatment and Procedures

The Heart Institute at Nicklaus Children's Hospital offers the most advanced techniques for the surgical management of pediatric cardiovascular problems. Bringing together a select group of world-renowned cardiologists and cardiovascular surgeons whose teamwork has contributed to the development of many new treatments and surgical techniques including minimally invasive management of pediatric congenital heart Disease.

Post operative and follow-up care is streamlined by using an integrated computer database management system. All patients are supported as needed by Nicklaus Children's caring, dedicated Pediatric CICU team.

By providing the kind of personal care which puts each child at the center of a team medical effort, the Nicklaus Children's Hospital Heart Institute has worked miracles for critically ill children and provided calming relief to distressed families.

Advanced Cardiac Services Include:

Amplatzer Piccolo Occluder

The Amplatzer Piccolo Occluder is a treatment for the congenital heart defect known as patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Learn more

Anomalous Coronary Artery Repair

Anomalous coronary artery repair is a surgery performed to repair a heart problem known as anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery. Learn more

Aortic Valve Replacement

Aortic valve replacement is a surgery to remove and replace the heart’s aortic valve. This may be needed if the valve leaks (aortic regurgitation) or has a narrow opening (aortic stenosis). Learn more

Atrial Septal Defect Repair

Your child may need atrial septal defect (ASD) repair if they have a hole between the two upper chambers of their heart. During ASD surgery, the physician sews a patch into the heart to close the hole.

Balloon and Stent Angioplasty

Balloon angioplasty is a non-surgical procedure used to restore the flow of blood through blocked or narrow vessels. It is performed using a catheter, is less invasive than surgery, and in some instances more effective, such as in vessels that cannot be easily reached by the surgeon. Learn more

Balloon Angioplasty and Stent Angioplasty for Coarctation of the Aorta

When feasible, a balloon angioplasty with or without stent angioplasty is a medical procedure that can help restore the flow of blood to the lower extremities. Learn more

Balloon Valvuloplasty

Balloon valvuloplasty is a medical procedure that is used to try to correct a heart valve that is either stiff or narrow by using a balloon to widen the valve opening. Learn more

Bidirectional Glenn Procedure

Bidirectional Glenn procedure is one in a series of surgeries performed to get a sufficient amount of blood to the lungs. It is needed when one of the heart’s ventricles doesn’t work well. Learn more

Cardiovascular surgery

A variety of surgical procedures which aim to repair or reconstruct congenital heart defects. Our team has developed innovative and minimally invasive techniques with outstanding surgical outcomes.

Coarctation Repair

The aorta is one of the most important blood vessels that delivers oxygenated blood from the heart to the body. Coarctation of the aorta is a heart problem that is present at birth. It presents when a portion or segment of the aorta is narrowed and restricts the flow of blood to the body. Learn more

Complete Atrioventricular Canal Repair

A complete atrioventricular canal defect is a birth defect in which the heart doesn’t develop properly. It’s characterized by a hole in the center of the heart that allows blood from all four chambers to mix and not flow through the heart properly. Complete atrioventricular (AV) canal repair is a surgery to fix this defect. Learn more

Device Implants

Device implants refers to the medical procedure required to implant a device that regulates and/or monitors the heart rate and rhythm. Learn more

Diaphragm Plication

Eventration of the diaphragm is a birth defect that involves the diaphragm not working properly due to it being an abnormal shape or at the wrong elevation. This issue causes breathing difficulties and other problems. Learn more

Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) Therapy

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy is an emergency medical treatment for very ill babies/children who often need a heart and/or lung support. It involves circulating blood out of the body, through an artificial lung for oxygenation and back into the body. Learn more

Fontan Procedure

Fontan procedure is a heart surgery used to correct single ventricle type heart defects in children. The defect it helps to correct is one where oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood mixes and does not circulate properly. It is usually the third surgery for single ventricle palliation. Learn more

Heart Catheterization

Heart catheterization is a medical procedure that determines how well your heart is working. Learn more

Heart Valve Replacement Surgery

Heart valve surgery is used to repair or replace damaged or diseased heart valves. A common precursor to heart valve surgery is heart valve disease, which happens when a heart valve does not close completely, which can cause blood to flow backwards, limit blood flowing forward, cause chest pains, shortness of breath, fainting, or heart failure. Learn more

Interrupted aortic arch repair

Interrupted aortic arch repair is a surgical procedure to fix interrupted aortic arch (IAA). IAA is a heart defect in which the aorta is incomplete. Learn more

Ligation of collateral vessels

Collateral vessels are abnormally large blood vessels that connect the aorta (the large blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body) to the pulmonary artery (the blood vessels that carry unoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs for oxygenation), and are usually associated with a congenital abnormality of the heart. Learn more

Loop Recorder Implantation

Loop recorder implantation is the procedure used to install a loop recorder in the body. A loop recorder is a device that measures the heart’s electrical activity. It activates if the heart rate gets too low or too high and begins to record the heart rate. Learn more

Norwood Procedure

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is a heart defect that’s characterized by an undeveloped left ventricle that causes a number of problems. Norwood procedure is a cutting-edge three-step surgery that corrects the problem with a good success rate. Learn more

Pacemaker and Implanted Internal Defibrillator Therapy

A pacemaker and implanted internal defibrillator are devices implanted in the chest to control your heart rate. A pacemaker keeps the heart rate steady with electrical pulses if you have arrhythmia. If you have dangerous arrhythmia, the implanted internal defibrillator shocks the heart when the rhythm becomes dangerous. Learn more

PAPVR Repair

Pulmonary veins are blood vessels that deliver oxygenated blood from the lungs into the left side of the heart. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) is a heart defect that is sometimes present at birth, in which one or two of the pulmonary veins of the heart drain blood into the right atrium instead of the left atrium. This causes the oxygen-rich blood to flow back to the lungs instead of the rest of the body, which can cause a number of complications. Learn more

Patent Ductus Arteriosus Ligation

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a heart defect that’s present at birth. When the condition is present, a vein that normally closes at birth (the ductus arteriosus) stays open. The result is that oxygen-rich blood that should be circulating into the body instead goes back to the lungs. PDA ligation is a procedure to repair this problem. Learn more

Pediatric Pacemaker Implantation

A child may need a pediatric pacemaker if he or she has an abnormal heartbeat (arrhythmia). Historically, pacemakers have steadied the heart rate while implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) shocked the heart during dangerous arrhythmias; however, newer pacemakers can perform both functions. 

Pericardial Window

The body’s heart is enclosed in a protective covering called a sac. The sac has two layers with fluid between them that reduce friction as the heart beats. When too much fluid builds up between the layers, this can cause a variety of problems. Pericardial window is a procedure to remove this excess fluid. Learn more

Pulmonary Artery Catheterization

Pulmonary artery catheterization is a procedure where a long thin flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a blood vein in the groin area of a leg and guided into the right side of the heart to the pulmonary arteries. It is done to diagnose or treat a number of heart conditions. Learn more

Pulmonary Heart Valve Replacement with the SAPIEN™

The Edwards Lifesciences SAPIEN™ transcatheter heart valve replaces a leaky or narrow pulmonary valve. The implant itself is made from a portion of a cow’s vein, and has a wire frame for support.  Learn more

Radiofrequency energy to treat heart rhythm abnormalities and disturbances.

Radiofrequency energy refers to the use of special electricity or radio waves to disrupt the abnormal electrical activity of heart muscle. Learn more

Right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction/pulmonary valve replacement

RVOT reconstruction is a surgical repair of the RVOT. Frequently, a pulmonary valve will also need to be replaced as part of the reconstruction of the heart. Learn more

Ross Procedure

Ross procedure is a surgery to repair a damaged aortic valve. The aortic valve is responsible for pumping blood from the heart out to the body. Learn more

Ross-Konno Procedure

Ross-Konno procedure is a surgery to repair a damaged aortic valve. The aortic valve is responsible for pumping blood from the heart out to the body. The left ventricular outflow tract is also enlarged as part of the Ross-Konno procedure. Learn more

Standard balloon angioplasty and cutting balloon angioplasty

Angioplasty is a medical procedure that’s used to open up narrow or blocked arteries or other blood vessels. Standard balloon angioplasty and cutting balloon angioplasty are two unique variations of angioplasty that are used for different problems and patients. Learn more

Subaortic Membrane Resection

Subaortic membrane resection is a surgery that’s used to repair a medical condition known as subaortic stenosis. With subaortic stenosis, the area just below the aortic valve of the left ventricle is obstructed or narrowed often by excess tissue, which reduces the flow of blood to the body. Learn more

Tetralogy of Fallot Repair

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a heart defect present at birth. TOF consists of four different heart abnormalities: a ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta, pulmonary stenosis and right ventricular hypertrophy. Learn more


Thrombolysis is a treatment that can break up blood clots lodged in veins. Doing so can prevent the clots from potentially causing heart attacks or strokes later on. Learn more

Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return Repair

Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) is a heart defect sometimes present at birth. With it, the four pulmonary veins that are supposed to bring blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart instead bring it to the right atrium. TAPVR repair is a surgery to correct the defect. Learn more

Transcatheter and Hybrid Ventricular Septal Defect Closure

A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is an opening in the heart between the left and right ventricles that should not be there. It is one of the most common heart-related birth defects. Transcatheter ventricular septal defect closure is a potential method to fix the problem (close the hole) in some specific types of VSDs. Learn more

Transcatheter Atrial Septal Defect Device Closure

An atrial septal defect (ASD) is an opening in the heart between the right and left atrium (upper chambers of the heart) that should not be there. Transcatheter atrial septal defect closure is a non-surgical procedure that can close the defect without the need for open heart surgery, and avoids a scar in the chest. Learn more

Transcatheter Patent Ductus Arteriosus Closure

Transcatheter patent ductus arteriosus closure is a method of correcting PDA without the need for a surgical procedure and avoiding a scar on the chest/back. Learn more

Truncus Repair

Truncus arteriosus is a heart defect present at birth. Babies with the defect only have one large artery carrying blood to the body and lungs, rather than the two vessels (the aorta and pulmonary artery) that they should have. This great vessel usually has one large valve which may have between two and five leaflets. Truncus arteriosus is also present with a ventricular septal defect (VSD), or a hole between the heart’s ventricles. Truncus repair is a surgery to solve these problems. Learn more

Ventricular Pacing

Ventricular pacing refers to the electrical stimulation provided to the ventricles of the heart by a pacemaker. It’s intended to regulate the heart rate in individuals with abnormally slow heart rhythm. Learn more