Diabetes (Type 1)
Also known as: Juvenile diabetes, insulin-dependent diabetes
What is type 1 diabetes?
Normally, the pancreas produces a hormone called insulin which enables the sugar in the blood to move into the body’s cells to provide energy. In children with type 1 diabetes, the child’s body no longer produces insulin. While it generally occurs around the time of puberty it can occur much earlier.
What causes type 1 diabetes?
While the exact cause is unclear, in most children it appears that the body’s own immune system attacks and destroys the pancreatic cells which normally produce insulin (islet cells). Environmental (certain viruses, perhaps early infant cow milk diet) and genetic factors (certain genes increase risk) appear to play a role in its development. Children at increased risk also include those with a family history of diabetes, and who are non-Hispanic white.
What are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes?
Symptoms usually develop quickly over a few weeks. Increased thirst, frequent urination, hunger, weight loss without cause, fatigue, irritability and mood changes, weakness, blurred vision, foul breath and yeast infections in girls are common. Over time, type 1 diabetes can lead to heart, vision, kidney, bone, skin and neurological complications.
What are type 1 diabetes care options?
The diagnosis and management of diabetes is stressful for child and family. Treatment is lifelong and carried out by a multidisciplinary team involving endocrinologists, diabetes nurse educators, registered nutritionists, and medical social workers. It includes more than just monitoring a child's blood sugar daily, encouraging eating regular healthy meals, exercising on a regular basis, taking insulin as directed by the healthcare team and preventing short term (like a too low-hypoglycemia, or too high-hyperglycemia, blood sugars) and long- term complications. It also needs to address physical, psychosocial and emotional needs, particularly as the child matures into being an adolescent/young adult.
Reviewed by: Jack Wolfsdorf, MD, FAAP
This page was last updated on: September 09, 2020 11:15 AM
Children with diabetes can be more prone to soft tissue abnormalities.
Dr. Joshua Tarkoff, pediatric endocrinologist at Nicklaus Children's Hospital, explains about type 1 diabetes in children.
Learn more about
Diabetes (Type 2)
Type 2 diabetes is a medical condition in which the body has higher-then-normal blood sugar levels.
Gastroparesis occurs if the muscles and/or nerves of the stomach do not move food properly, causing the stomach to take too long to empty.
High Blood Pressure
Hypertension (high blood pressure) is defined as a child's blood pressure greater than that of 95% of their normal peers.
Continuous Insulin Infusion
Continuous insulin infusion is a diabetes treatment that helps keep blood glucose levels under control in people with diabetes. Rather than injecting insulin frequently, a person with an insulin pump gets precise doses of insulin that are delivered throughout the day.
Continuous Glucose Monitoring
Many people with diabetes have to check their blood glucose several times a day. Continuous glucose monitoring provides nearly constant blood glucose levels (measured every 5 minutes) through a device that is implanted on the body.
Non Esterified Free Fatty Acid (NEFFA)
Measuring the level of non esterified free fatty acids, is useful in determining how well somebody is controlling their non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus symptoms.