Conditions We Treat

Acute Kidney Injury

When the kidneys are suddenly (hours to a few days) damaged (it can vary in severity and have a variety of causes) and cannot perform their normal function of removing extra fluid, salts, waste and toxins from the blood, (plus other functions like controlling blood pressure, hormone production) the condition is known as acute kidney injury. Learn more


Please see Enuresis for further information.

Chronic Kidney Disease

The kidneys are critical organs that remove waste and excess water from the blood and direct it into your urine. When the kidneys lose function, this is known as chronic kidney disease. Learn more


Lymph fluid is the fluid that is collected from around tissues that flows into lymphatic capillaries from which it is transported through bigger vessels to lymph nodes before emptying into one of the big veins of the neck where it mixes with the bloodstream. When fluid from the lymphatic system leaks into the kidneys and turns the urine a milky color, this rare condition is known as chyluria. Learn more

Collagen Vascular Diseases

Collagen is the main protein in connective tissue. Connective tissue are fibers and cells which hold body parts together and may be rigid or compliant like tendons/ligaments or muscles, or in-between like cartilage. When this tissue is abnormal some of diseases that occur involve many organ systems including skeleton, lungs, eyes, heart and blood vessels. Learn more

Congenital Anomalies of the Urinary Tract

Congenital anomalies of the urogenital tract, are a broad group of common, mild to life-threatening malformations of the kidney/ureters/bladder/urethra/penis/testis/and female genitalia (one or more parts) present at birth that occur during fetal development of the urinary/genital system. Learn more

Ectopic Ureter

The ureters are the tubes in the body that drain urine from the kidneys to the bladder. A ureter that is not connected to the bladder, and drains somewhere else is known as an ectopic ureter. Learn more

Electrolyte Imbalance

Body fluids are composed of water and substances dissolved in it (solutes) - these solutes when possessing an electrical charge are called electrolytes which may be positively charged or negatively charged. These electrolytes are maintained in the body within a narrow range and are essential to the metabolic activities of all cells. When these electrolytes are out of balance (either too high or too low) they cause problems in many organ or systems. Learn more


Primary bedwetting/nocturnal enuresis is the common problem of multiple episodes of wetting the bed, only at night when asleep, over the age of 7 years, who have no history of a urinary tract infection. Learn more


One of the kidneys’ main function is to remove waste products of cell metabolism and excess fluid from the body, which are excreted in the urine. Each kidney has about 1 million functional filtering units called nephrons. The glomeruli are the tufts of capillaries of the nephron which act as the filters of the blood. Glomerulonephritis is an acute or chronic inflammatory disease of the glomeruli which prevents them from functioning properly. Learn more


Red blood cells in the urine is known as hematuria and is quite common in children. Hematuria can be “gross”- that is obviously bloody, smokey or tea colored or “microscopic” which means the blood can only be seen under a microscope (it only requires investigation if present on three consecutive urine specimens). Learn more

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

Hemolytic uremic syndrome is a fairly uncommon life-threatening form of kidney disease which can result in kidney failure. Learn more

High Blood Pressure

Blood pressure is a measurement of the force that blood exerts on the arteries as it flows through them. Learn more

Horseshoe Kidney

Horseshoe kidney is a disorder in which the two kidneys are fused together as one at the lower end giving it a horseshoe-shaped “U” form. Learn more

Kidney Failure

The kidneys are responsible for balancing body water and salt levels (plus other functions) by filtering the water and waste material brought it by the bloodstream and transforming it into urine to be emptied from the bladder. Renal failure results when damage to the kidneys impairs this function. Learn more

Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney

Multicystic dysplastic kidney is a common birth defect in which a baby’s normal kidney tissue (usually only on one side) is replaced by many cysts. Learn more

Nephrotic Syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome is a group of symptoms caused by kidney damage which results in children generally between the ages of 2-6 years, leaking a protein normally found in blood, into the urine. Learn more

Obstructive Uropathy

Obstructive uropathy is a condition in which there is a blockage of the urine flow in the tube that carries urine between the kidneys and the bladder, or anywhere to the external urethral meatus. Learn more

Polycystic Kidney Disease

PKD is a kidney disorder where numerous cysts enlarge in both kidneys reducing the amount of normal kidney tissue and thereby the kidney’s ability to function normally, leading to kidney failure. Learn more

Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Deficiency

Depending on the availability of food, the body either uses glucose produced by the breakdown of ingested carbohydrates, when food is plentiful, or fat when food is limited, to produce the energy cells need to function. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of three enzymes is the bridge that gives the body the flexibility to switch from one source of energy to the other. PDC deficiency is a disorder resulting from a lack of one of the three enzymes. Learn more

Renal Parenchyma Diseases

The renal parenchyma is the functional part of the kidney that includes the renal cortex (the outermost part of the kidney) and the renal medulla. The renal cortex contains the approximately 1 million nephrons (these have glomeruli which are the primary filterer of blood passing through the kidney, and renal tubules which modify the fluid to produce the appropriate amount/content of urine). The renal medulla consists primarily of tubules/ducts which are the beginning of the collecting system that allows the urine to flow onwards to being excreted. Renal parenchyma disease describes medical conditions which damage these parts of the kidney. These diseases may be congenital, hereditary or acquired. Learn more

Tubular Diseases

Renal tubular disorders are a diverse group of conditions, both generalized and specific that develop when the tubules don’t work properly resulting in the body’s blood water, salts, and level of acidity, singly or together, becoming abnormal. Learn more

Urinary Tract Infection

The body’s urinary tract includes the kidneys, bladder, ureters and urethra. When an infection does occur in the urinary system, it is known as a urinary tract infection, or UTI. Learn more

Vesicoureteral Reflux

Urine normally flows one way from the kidneys to the bladder via tubes called the ureters before exiting the body through the urethra. When urine flows backwards from bladder towards the kidneys the condition is called vesicoureteral reflux. Learn more

Wilms’ tumor

Wilms tumor is a rare type of cancer that starts in the kidney and occurs most often in children ages 3 or 4. Learn more