Brain Injury

Also known as: Traumatic brain injury (TBI), acquired brain injury, primary and secondary brain injury

What is a brain injury?

Traumatic brain injury or Primary injury to the brain occurs after a direct blow to the head which results in a diminished function of the brain. It can cause bruising of the brain or bleeding on or in the brain tissue. Secondary injury develops in minutes to weeks after the initial (primary) insult from a number of processes (including a low blood pressure and lack of oxygen to the brain) that over time can lead to brain cell damage.


What causes brain injury?

In infants, child abuse is the commonest cause of brain injury. In older children and adolescents, falls, bicycle - related injuries, motor vehicle collisions and assaults are the leading causes.


What are the symptoms of brain injury?

Symptoms vary widely depending on the age, type and severity of brain injury and may occur immediately or days later. They may include sleepiness, loss of consciousness, convulsions, vomiting or nausea, fatigue, headache, problems with balance, attention and concentration problems, issues with memory, emotion and behavior, among others.


What are brain injury care options?

Treatment will also vary based on severity. Minimal injury may just require rest and observation. For more severe brain trauma, making sure that the child can breath, is well oxygenated and his blood pressure is maintained is important; management after that may require a team of Surgical, Medical and Intensive care Specialists to provide optimum care. Long term services involving many Rehabilitation Specialists may be needed. Nicklaus Children's Hospital, as a designated Pediatric Trauma Center has all the Specialists and facilities to provide for the full range of short and long term services needed.

Reviewed by: Jack Wolfsdorf, MD, FAAP

This page was last updated on: 6/12/2018 9:29:06 AM


Upcoming Events

2nd Annual Nicklaus Children’s Hospital Sports Health Symposium

Longevity in Sports Performance, Considerations from Elementary to Post Professional

This course will give the athletic trainer and physical therapist an overview of athletic development models and orthopedic/rehabilitative management of several conditions that influence athletic performance.

Learn more and register

2018 Pediatric Autism Symposium: Ensuring Long Term Outcomes in Children Birth to Five

This one day course will include educational sessions, case studies, and panel discussions that highlight evidence-based information for managing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and other related disabilities for children ages birth to 5.

Learn more and register

Communication and Feeding Difficulties in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

This class is offered to parents and caregivers of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Learn more and register

Epilepsy Exchange

Join us for a Facebook Live event! The webinar will explore epilepsy treatment options including medications, surgeries and therapies, provide advice on how to choose a course of treatment and will include a live Q&A session. Join Patricia Dean, Aileen Marie Rodriguez, Drs. Ian Miller and Marytery Fajardo.

Learn more and register

From the Newsdesk

Get your FREE Water Watcher Card here!
06/29/2018 — Prevent drowning and accidents when children are near water by assigning a responsible adult to wear a Water Watcher Badge. The badge wearer takes responsibility to supervise the children until hading off to the next water watcher. Available at selected urgent care centers while supplies last.
Daniella Celebrates her Ninth Birthday by Advocating for Children’s Health
06/26/2018 — On this very same day nine years ago, Daniella Alvarez was diagnosed Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor (ATRT), a rare and aggressive type of brain cancer. The news came on June 26, 2009, her second birthday. Daniella endured years of brain surgeries, aggressive chemotherapies, radiation, imaging scans, multiple visits to intensive care at Nicklaus Children’s Hospital. She is now cancer free thanks to a pediatric clinical trial made possible through research funding.

Video

video
Dr. John Ragheb, director of the division of neurosurgery, with the Brain Institute at Nicklaus Children's Hospital discusses guided imaging which brings MRI technology directly into the surgical suite to enhance safety and ensure complete removal of tumors and preservation of healthy tissue.