Celiac disease is a chronic, small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy initiated by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals and characterized by specific autoantibodies against tissue transglutaminase 2 (anti-IgA-(TG2), endomysium (EMA) and/or deamidated gliadin peptide (IgG DGP)". While many carry the genotype (HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8) few (2-3%) develop CD. Affecting primarily young white children (any age and race) CD presents with gastrointestinal (GIT) signs or symptoms, extra-intestinal signs or symptoms, or both.
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity patients are those who have similar signs and/or symptoms with gluten ingestion with symptomatic improvement on its withdrawal. At present there are no biomarkers to aid in its diagnosis.